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Disinfection by leat and by Steam.- , clergy, above the age of fifteen years. This Dr. II. F. Parsons has found, in experi. was distasteful to the people, and led to rements on the disinfection of packages by bellion. In another form of taxation, laheat and by steam, that dry heat at the borers and tradesmen were required to give boiling - point for an hour is sufficient to their services to the king or to a noble. destroy active bacilli of all ordinary infec- Many palaces, Windsor Castle among them, tious diseases; but, if spores are to be at- were built in this way. From 1695, for tacked, a heat of 245° for an hour or of thirteen years, cvery person not a pauper 220° for four hours will be required. The was required to pay a tax for each child complete penetration of an object by steam- born to him, rising from two shillings in heat for more than five minutes is sufficient the case of a common person to thirty for its full disinfection; and this method is pounds in the case of a duke. A bachelor's applicable to such articles as pillows, which tax of one shilling in the case of ordinary are very difficult of penetration to dry beat. persons was imposed on unmarried men Moistening the air of the heated chamber over twenty-five years old, and on widowers diminishes the time necessary for penetra- without children, but wealthy people and tion, while it also makes the distribution nobles had to pay more. By Queen Elizaof temperature through the chamber more beth's act of uniformity, persons wbo reagreeable, and tends to prevent the scorch- fused to become Episcopalians, or who abing of articles placed in it; but it was not sented themselves from church on Sunday, found to increase the disinfecting power at had to pay a tax of a shilling a year. Per. the temperature employed. Damage may haps the most oppressive and impolitic tares be done to articles in disinfecting them by imposed by the British Government were heat or stcam, by scorching or partial de- those on windows and on funerals, with composition of organic substances; by fix. which even the history of this nineteenth ing of stains; by melting of fusible sub century has been blotted. stances; by changes in color, gloss, etc.; by shrinking and felting of woolen materials ; or by wetting. The nature of the articles

NOTES. should, therefore, be regarded in adapting

The second ten days of January were the process to them.

extraordinarily cold all through the North

west, and temperatures were registered at English Taxes.—The first recorded tax some places much below what had ever beimposed upon Britain was laid by Julius fore been observed in the United States. Cæsar, who, after his victories, required for richs, the mercury was at or below zero

At Iowa City, according to Professor HinRome an annual tribute of men and wild every night from the 11th to the 20th. animals—the men to be kept as hostages, During the twenty-eight years that weather the animals to be fought with in the arena.

observations have been taken, there have When ecclesiastical domination came in, the been only five decades having a mean tem.

perature of zero or below; only one of these Pope levied a “Peter's pence” for the sup

was during the first eighteen years, while the port of his English University at Rome. other four were during the last ten years. When the English conquered Wales, they This shows that extreme cold has been seven levied on the people an annual tax of three times more frequent during the latter than hundred wolves' heads, which proved a great dication of what the author has often held,

during the former years, and is another inblessing to the principality. After England that the later winters in Iowa have been became exposed to great danger from the colder than the former ones. incursions of the Northmen, a land-tax of

A “CABLE anchor” has been success. twelve pence per “hide” was levied in or- fully tried in the Seine for stopping boats. der to raise a sum with which to buy off The apparatus is a cable, having on it a sethe invaders. The consequence of this silly ries of canvas cones, which open out by the policy was that more invaders came to be action of the water, and close agaià when bought off. A poll-tax was imposed in the thirteen knots was stopped each time by the

drawn the usual way. A steamer running fifteenth century of one shilling a ycar upon apparatus in thirteen seconds, and in a every person, except he belonged to the space of from twenty to thirty feet.

fects of the operations of the marmota in that

hot baths induce a loss of weigbe caused

describes the ef

, modifying the surface of the Siberian steppes by the sweating, which lasts for about twen. as important. Their heaps of earth cover ty-four hours. It is compensated for hy inhundreds of square miles, and each one of creased drinking and diminished urinary them represents at least two cubic metres secretion. Baths of dry hot air provoke a of earth removed, or about 30,000 cubic sweat that ceases on coming out of the metres brought to the surface on each square bath, while the perspiration provoked by kilometre.

warm-water baths and warm moist-air baths The survey and last census of India is over. The nervous incidents of the bath,

lasts frequently for an hour after the bath show that the area of the peninsula of Hin- such as the acceleration of the pulse and of dostan is 1,382,624 square miles, and the respiration, make their appearance before population 253,891,821. Although immense the central temperature exhibits any clevatracts of country are annually cultivated, ten

tion. million acres of land suitable for cultivation have not as yet been plowed ; and one hun. J. CHALMERS ROBERTSON, M. B., relates dred and twenty million acres are returned in “ The Lancet" the case of a family whom as waste lands.

he had attended, who were poisoned from

cating bread in which mold had developed M. Jovis, Director of the Aëronautic itself. Every member who had partaken of Union of France, has found a satisfactory the loaf in ordinary quantity had been made varnish for textile materials. It is described ill; one member who had merely caten a as being of great flexibility, as containing small piece, felt uncomfortable; those who no oleaginous base, and, while adding little did not cat any remained well. The sympto the weight, as conferring great imperme- toms were diarrhea and pain in the epiability. It is well adapted for balloons, gastrium. The author suggests from this marine cordage, sails, tents, and similar experience, that it is possible that we may structures ; is suitable for paintings and have in undetected discased bread an imwainscoting3; is exempt from moldiness ; portant factor in the causation of diarrhæa can be exposed to very varied temperatures which we would not readily suspect. without alteration; and furnishes sub-products which can be utilized for coating walls, Persons whose plants mysteriously sick. railway-sleepers, etc.

en and die out, may learn from the expe

rience of Dr. J. W. L. Thudicum, as related PROFESSOR W. MATTIEU WILLIAMS offers by him to the London Society of Arts. He as a better explanation than the old one of

watered a frame of flourishing young wall. the zigzag course of lightning, that owing to flower's, the ordinary tap being dry, with variations of moisture the conducting power

water of at least suspicious purity from of different portions of air is variable, and another tap. The plants were soon infected the electric discharge follows the course of with a fungus, and in a short time the least resistance.

frame did not contain a healthy, hardly a EXPERIENCE at the Winter Palace of the living plant. For two summers the mignon

ettes in a conservatory were destroyed by Czar at St. Petersburg indicates that the electric light injures the cxotic plants used made them sickly and short-lived. The only

a root-fungus which distorted the plants and for the decoration of the rooms by causing way in which this parasite could be got rid the leaves to turn yellow, dry up, and fall off. of was by destroying the carth and all woodThe experiments of Dr. Siemens led him to a different conclusion, but his greenhouse in the conservatory for two years.

en boxes by fire, and growing no mignoncite was heated by the waste steam from the engine driving his dynamo, and this perhaps MR. MAGNEN made last year a successwas of beneficial effect sufficient to counter

ful and satisfactory exhibition of his process act the mischief done by the light.

for softening water by means of the mate

rial called “anti-calcaire." Steam-boilers An effective composition for a “hand which had already become slightly incrusted grenade” fire-extinguisher is, common salt, with lime, were worked for two years with 19:46 ; sal ammoniac, 8:88; water, 71.66; or

water softened by anti-calcaire without at20 pounds of salt, 10 pounds of sal ammo

tention. When opened, they were wholly niac, and 7 gallons of water. The flask free from incrustation, showing that the should be of thin glass, so that when thrown material had no: only prevented the effect with force against any object, it will fall to taking place, but had also destroyed what pieces. The grenades, costing but little, incrustations had already accrucd. can be distributed freely all over the prem ises to be protected; and, should a fire oc- A COLLECTION of specimens of poisonous cur, break a bottle or several bottles over fishes is shown in connection with the exit, and the disaster will probably be averted. hibition recently opened in Havre, France. system and of the sense of hearing. “The Coal-Gas of the Metropolis." He in. Dr. Max SCHUSTER, an eminent petrolo vestigated the atomic weight of beryllium, gist, of the University of Vienna, died last made redeterminations of the specific heats November.

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Some are poisonous when eaten ; others are of various metals, and translated and edit-
merely venomous. Among the first are many ed Kobbe's “Inorganic Chemistry."
spheroids, a tetrodon, and many Clupea,
which are abundant near tbe Cape of Good

PROFESSOR BONAMY Price, Professor of llope. In the Japan Sca is found a very Political Economy in the University of Os peculiar tetrodon, which is sometimes used ford, died in London, January 8th. He was as a means of suicide. It brings on sensa

born in Guernsey in 1807; was one of the tions like those produced by morphia, and

masters in Dr. Arnold's school at Rugby then death.

from 1830 to 1850; and was one of the

recognized authorities in his special branch The nervous irritation produccd by tin- of research. His lectures, in their pabnitus, or noises in the ear, from which many lished form, have had an important ecopersons suffer much, has been mentioned as nomic influence. They include "The Prina possible cause of mental disorder. The ciples of Currency" (1869), and “ Chapters coarser diseases of the ear are subject to

on Political Economy" (1878). In 1876 surgical treatment from without; but nerv. Professor Price published another work, ous affections provoked by obscure dis. “On Currency and Banking." orders are not so amenable, because their

Dr. Carl Passaraxt, the African traf. causes are more subtle, although none the eler, died recently at Honolulu, in the thirtyless real. Sometimes an obstruction of the fourth year of his age. eustachian tube may be the chief cause of tinnitus,

DR. FERDINAND VANDEVEER HAYDES, a geologist whose name is inseparably associ.

ated with the Government explorations of OBITUARY NOTES.

the Rocky Mountain region, died in Phila. at his home in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Massachusetts, in 1829, and was graduated Dr. Asa Gray, the eminent botanist, died delphia, December 22d, after an illness of

many months. He was born in Westfield, January 30th, in the seventy-eighth year of from Oberlin College in 1850, and from the his age, after an illness of about a month. He Albany Medical College in 1853. He was eonwas born in Paris, Oneida County, New York, nected for more than twenty years, a great in 1810; studied medicine, and received the degree of M. D. in 1831, but never engaged tions of the Western Territories, including

part of the time as chief, with the explorain practice; became an assistant in the Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, New Mesico, chemical laboratory of Dr. John Torrey in

Dakota, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Be1833; and a little later was appointed curator in the Lyceum of Natural History: His work, he was the author of the books, " The

sides the official reports of his exploring first botanical writings were descriptions of Great West; its Attractions and Resources" sedges and of certain plants of northern and western New York. In the “ Elements (1880), and “North America” (1883). He

was a member of most of the American of Botany," published in 1836, he showed scientific societies, and an honorary and that he had already views of his he was not afraid to utter

, even though they corresponding member of many foreign somight be different from those of the then recognized authorities in science. From M. F. J. RAYNAUD, an eminent Freneb that time till the end of his life he worked electrician and director of the Higher School with unceasing activity and growing fame, of Telegrapby, died early in January, from and for many years he has been recognized the results of a murderous attack. He was as one of the leading botanists of the worid. associated with the laying of several teleHis numerous works are well known to all graphic cables, one of which, crossing the readers and students, and can not be cata. Seine, having been broken, he repaired in logued in a note. It is enough to say of 1870, in the face of the enemy's fire. Le them that whichever class of them we re- was the first person to call the attention of gard, they have never been excelled. French men of science to the labors of Eng

lishmen in electric unities; and he transPROFESSOR T. S. Huuridge, chemist of lated Gordon's “ Treatise on Physics ” into the University College of Wales at Aberyst- French. with, died November 30th, aged thirty-four years. He prosecuted his earlier scientific fessor Arthur Christiani, of the Physiologi.

The recent death is announced of Prostudies while serving as a clerk in a corn. merchant's office, at the evening classes of cal Institute of Berlin, who was a great authe Science and Art Department, and after thority on the physiological action of elecward studied under Professors' Frankland tricity, and on the physiology of the nervous and Bunsen. His first publication was on

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New York Life Ins. Co.

Office, Nos. 346 & 348 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

JANUARY 1, 1887. Amount of Net Cash Assets, January 1, 1886...

$63,512,618.00 REVENUE ACCOUNT. Premiums......

$16,386,067.69 Less deferred premiums, January 1, 1886.

878, 161.65— $15,507,906.04 Interest and rents, etc. (including realized gains on Securities sold) 4,157,766.42 Less Interest accrued January 1, 1888......

435,284.18 3,722,502, 24– $19,280,408. DISBURSEMENT ACCOUNT.

$82,743,026.28 Losses by death, including reversionary additions to same.....

$2,757,035,97 Endowments, matured and discounted, including reversionary additions to same. 559,075.01 Dividends, annuities, and purchased policies.....

4,311,119.11 Total paid Policy-bolders...

- $7,627,230.09 Taxes and re-insurances...

243,142.84 Commissions, brokerages, agency expenses and physicians' fees....

2,529,857.57 Office and law expenses, salaries, advertising, printing, etc...

5:23,672.80-$10,928,402.6 ASSETS.

$71,819,623.48 Cash in bank, on hand, and in transit (since received)..

$3,088,805.18 United States Bonds and other bonds and stocks (market value, $48,124,278.88).. 39,522,448.99 Real Estate...

6,889,974.22 Bonds and Mortgage. Arst lien on real estate (buildings thereon insured for

$14.000,000.00, and the policies assigned to the Company as additional collateral security)..

15,228,775.00 Temporary Loans (market value of securities held as collateral, 85,912,741.00)... 4,450,000.00 *Loans on existing policies (the Reserve held by the Company on these policies amounts to over $2,000,000.00)

408,619,44 *Quarterly and semi-annual premiums on existing policies, due subsequent to Jan, 1, 1887.

1,041,666.15 *Premiums on existing policies in course of transmission and collection. (The

Reserve on these policies, included in Liabilities, is estimated at $1,050,000) 646,437.14 Agents' balancer.....

161,905.81 Accrued Interest on investments, January 1, 1887..

486,497.10–$71.819.823.46 Market value of securities over cost on Company's books...

8,601,499 *A detailed schedule of these items will accompany the usual annual report filed with the In

surance Department of the State of New York CASH ASSETS, January 1, 1887

$75,421,453.37 APPROPRIATED AS FOLLOWS: Adjusted losses, due subsequent to January 1, 1887

$ 202,846.43 Reported losses, awaiting proof, etc..

858,625.28 Matured endowments, due and unpaid (claims not presented).

87,590,70 Annuities due and unpaid (uncalled for)...

9,818.74 Reserver for re-insurance on existing policies; participating insurance at 4 per ct.

Carlisle net premium ; non-participating at per ct. Carlisle det premium. 62,525,599.00 Reserved for contingent liabilities to Tontine Dividend Fund, Jan.

1, 1886, over and above a 4 per cent Reserve on existing policies of that class...

$3,128,742.77 Addition to the Fund during 1856...

1,320,580.69 DEDUCT

$4,444,278.46 Returned to Tontine policy-bolders during year on matured Tontines, 267,848.21 Balance of Tontine Fund January 1, 1867..

4,176,425,25 Reserved for premiums paid in advance...


$67,340,926.12 Divisible Surplus (Company's Standard)..........


$75,421,463.37 Surplus by the New York State Standard, at 4% por cent (including the Tontine Fund).... $16,549,319.53

From the undivided surplus of $8,080,627.25 the Board of Trustees has declared a Reversionary divided to pa ticipating policies in proportion to their contribution to surplus, available on settlement of next annual premium Death-claims paid. Income from Interest. Insurance in force.

Cash Assets. 1882....$1,955,292. 1682.... $2,798,018. Jap. 1, 1883....$171,415,097. Jan. 1, 1358.... $ 1983.. 2,263,092. 1883. ... 2,712,863. Jan. 1, 1884.... 198,746,043. Jan. 1, 1684.. 18-4.... 2,257,175. 1881.... 2,971,624. Jan. 1, 1885.... 229,882,586. Jan. 1, 1885. 1685.... 2.999,109. 1585.... 8,399,069. Jan. 1, 1836.... 259,674,500. Jan. 1, 1886.... 66,864,321 1986.... 2,767,035. 1886... 3,722,502. Jan. 1, 1887.... 804,873,540. Jan, 1, 1887.... 75491,45% Number of Policies issued during the year, 22,02%. Risks assumed, 885,178,294.



HENRY TUCK, Vice-President. D. O'DELL, Superintendent of Agencies.

ARCHIBALD H. WELCH, 2d Vice-President A. HUNTINGTON, M. D., Medical Director. RUFUS W. WEEKS, Actuary.

52519, 59,358.75

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