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exercisc of extrcmc carc. It is practically i stances paraffine has been used, as upon the observable that when nutrition is impaired in obelisk in Central Park, with a degree of a nerve-center or branch, cxtreme difficulty success; but the objection holds against its is met in restoring the integrity of the nerv- application that the stone has to be warmed ous function, and even thc wear and tear of to secure a sufficient depth of absorption. ordinary life seems to increase the exhaus. The obelisk on the Thames Embankment, tion instead of reducing it by stimulation of London, has been treated with a prepara. the recuperative faculty.
tion of solution of gum-resins in petroleum
spirit. But, Mr. Dent says, “if care be taken Handiwork - Teaching in Swedish in the selection of the stone, it is only under Sehools, Slöjd is the Swedish name for special and exceptional circumstances that handiwork instruction in the schools. It it will be considered desirable to resort to was invented by the famous Finnish edu- methods of preservation which must necescator Uno Cygnæus, and was adopted in sarily be expensive, and can only be regardSweden about fifteen years ago. The teach- ed as the best cure for defects th:.t admit ing is confined to simple work in woods, if of no other remedy." it is regarded merely as a training for the faculties, or in many branches if it is to be The Wild Cattlo of New Zealand.—The regarded as subsidiary to technical instruc- New Zealand farmers lost great numbers of tion. No efforts are spared to make the cattle during the Maori wars which ended system attractive to pupils and parents. in 1868, through their being turned loose Pupils are allowed to keep what they have by the enemy and by other accidents incimade, or to buy it chcaply; or are credited dent to a season of disorder. These animals with deferred pay, which they forfeit if they and their descendants now roam wild in the leave before a stipulated course is com- bush, particularly on the 'North Island, pleted, or which is given them as credits in where they afford a sport “that is little a bank-book on finishing the course. The less exciting and dangerous than that which sympathy of parents is catered to by teach exists in South Africa and the Western ing the children to make and use such com- prairies of America.” They are exceeding. mon implements as are most in demand at ly difficult to reach, on account of the char. bome; and by allowing them the use of the acter of the bush around which they hov. school-tools to make family repairs. The er, which is composed of the long, twining system has proved very successful in Swe- crecper known as “supple-jack.” No borse den, Norway, and Finland.
will try to penetrate this bush, because the
instinct of the animal tells him that he will Protection of Building - Stone. - All get his feet and legs entangled in the vines. methods of protecting building-stone against "Not so, however, the wild cattle; they will, decay depend upon filling the pores of the when surprised, rush madly into the densest stone with some substance that shall ex. shrubbery, and seem fully aware that nothclude water, the vchicle by which acids are ing can possibly follow them into it; and it introduoed. This is easily done while the is thus that instinct has induced these cattle builders are handling the stone, but it is to bid defiance to man, and to live their very hard after the structure has been set primitive life over again." up to paint on the water-proof material so as to insure its absorption to any consider- Varioas Kinds of Soap.-- According to able depth. Several processes including the a lecture by Dr. Stevenson Macadam, the use of silicate solutions have been described remains of a well-organized soap-factory by Mr. W.G. Dent as having been used with have been found in the ruins of Pompeii. more or less of success. Oxalate of alumina Soap-factories existed in Italy and Spain in applied to limestones gives them a coating the eighth and in France in the ninth centof the insoluble double oxalatc. Organic uries. The manufacture in Great Britain substances like linseed oil give considerable is first heard of in the fourteenth century. protection for a time, but are ultimately | White soap is generally prepared from taloxidized. Among inorganic or mineral sub. low, with a little lard and palm-oil. In yel
low soap resin is added. Soft soap is pre- , and chemical changes induced in the sur. pared from fatty substances, with potash.rounding mineral; because of the energy exCocoanut-oil soap has the advantage of being pended in cracking and beating rock which usable with sea-water, and is often called is not displaced; and because of the es. marine soap. Carbolic-acid soap contains cape of considerable quantities of the gases about two per cent of carbolic acid, and has through the blast-hole and the fissures made antisept as well as washing properties. by the explosion. In all probability the es. In toilet soaps, as in old brown Windsor, tent of these losses can never be determined when they are kept for a long time, the by direct experiment, as the phenomenon of soda is influenced by the air and has its an explosion docs not admit of a close obstrong properties neutralized. Then it is servation; nor can it be determined by comremelted and stored up again, and remelted parison with the work done under other cira second time, when it becomes soft and cumstances, as we are as yet uncertain as tender; but the toilet soaps of the present to the so-called dynamic resistance of rock. are not always given time to age. Pears's The useful work of a blasting charge is emsoap is ordinary soap of good quality, cut ployed partly in shattering the rock and into shavings, dried, and treated with alco- partly in throwing or displacing the shathol. The alcohol evaporates and leaves the tered masses. It is a familiar engineering transparent soap. The treatment has the problem to reduce the projectile force of a effect of taking all the free soda out of the blast to a minimum by means of suitablemixture.
sized charges, properly located in blast
holes of estimated dimensions, and so avoid Genesis of “ Original ” Rocks.—Dr. T. the cannonading of which workmen are Sterry Hunt gave, in the British Association, fond. With the discovery of at least apa concise account of his theory of the gene- proximately correct values for the useful sis of the various groups of original or non
work of charges, we are now able to demelastic rocks, which he classifies on the basis onstrate the correctness of this principle." of their geognostic relations as indigenous, exogenous, and exotic masses. The super- Mistakes in treating Organie Refuseficial portion of a cooling globe, consolidat. Most of the shortcomings of modern saniing from the center from a condition of tary methods, says Dr. G. V. Poore, are due igneous fusion, he conccived to have been to the fact that, in our dealing with organic the protoplasmic mineral matter, which, as refuse, we commit a scientific error-i. e., transformed by the agencies of air, water, wc pursue a coursc that is in opposition to and internal heat, presented a history of natural law. This error consists in mixing mineralogical evolution as regular, as con organic refuse with water. It then understant, and as definite in its results as that goes changes which differ widely from the seen in the organic kingdoms. The author changes which it undergoes when mixed next considered the conditions of softening with earth. According to Wollny, the proand displacement of indigenous rocks, which cess of oxidation of organic matter and the permitted them to assume in many cases the formation of nitrates take place most readily relations of exotic rocks, and to become ex- when a moderate amount of moisture is prestended after the manner of lavas, as seen in ent, and the most favorable amount is about the case of trachytes and many granite-like thirty-three per cent. When water is in ex. rocks. Such masses he designated pseudocess, the amount of free oxygen is insufficient plutonic.
to favor the growth of mold-fungi,the schizo
mycetes (bacteria and micrococci) are formed, Efficiency of Explosives.—It is pointed and, in place of oxidation, putrefaction ocout by Professor Charles E. Munroe, in his curs, with the formation of ammonia, free “Notes on the Literature of Explosives,” nitrogen, carbonic acid, and carbureted bsthat the theorctical efficiency of an explo- drogen. This process of deoxidation takes sive “can not be realized in useful work place in mixtures of putrescible matter with for several reasons, riz.: because of incom. water, and takes place also, it is said, in soil plete explosion; because of the compression / which is thoroughly soaked in sevage. In
the face of these facts, it is not to be won. lines in the cutting, which are believed to dered at that “sewage farming" has not have been the work of worms in the earlier proved a commercial success. We must, stages of their development, and of “flakindeed, be in doubt whether, when the cir. ing.” Beginners will draw the figure before cumstances are more than usually unfavor. attempting to cut; but a skillful operator able, it exercises any very great purifying will cut away at once, and rough out the action upon the putrescible mixture. In head and face of a portrait very quickly. the treatment of putrescible refuse we have A workman can cut a portrait from a phototo aim at nitrification rather than putrefac- graph in a few hours. The beginner should tion, and it is certain that by mixing with not spend more than two hours at a single water putrefaction is encouraged and nitri- sitting. In beginning, the learner should fication delayed. It seems to be almost in- cut a few simple outlines, such as are furcontestable that the proper course to pursue nished by the rose, the lily, or the fuchsia; with regard to organic refuse-putrescible the hand soon becomes accustomed to the matter-is the very reverse of what we do use of the tools, and the timid cut becomes pursue. We clearly ought to encourage oxi- exchanged for the vigorous and graceful dation and make putrefaction impossible. stroke of the artist. Great care is necesPutrefaction is certainly a great cause of sary in working the shell so as not to cut ill-health. The putrefaction of organic ref. into the ground, on account of the extreme use when mixed with water has, Dr. Poore difficulty of removing any marks. Marks are thinks, been the chief cause of the develop- removed by the use of powdered pumicement of modern sanitary progress-that is, stone and water, applied on a piece of of the need of doing something. Our forc- pointed wood; the next process is to smooth fathers were not given to this method of the surface with pumice-stonc and oil; wash treating putrescible matter. House-slops with a soft brush and warm water, then trickled along open gutters, and excremental polish with the dust of the rotten-stone and matters were deposited in döy pits.
sulphuric acid, mixed to a paste, and ap
plied on the point of a piccc of wood. Cameo - cutting for Amateurs, —- Mrs. IIenry Mackarness, in her “Young Lady's Vaccination and Erysipelas.-A report Book," represented cameo-cutting as an art by Dr. Airy, on three cases of so-called fatal simple enough to be acquired without great erysipelas after vaccination, will help in difficulty, which would "give young ladies forming a judgment of the sort of foundaa new and elegant pursuit.” Only two tion on which the fears of an outcome of kinds of tools are used, which are named this character rest. The three children the scaw per and the spit-sticker. The work were vaccinated by three different practiis performed at a bench or table, furnished tioners. In the first case the erysipelas with suitable gripping apparatus, the shell set in too late for it to be possible for vacbeing fixed with setter's cement on a stick, cination to have had anything to do with which may be made of a five-inch section of causing it; in the second case the child was a broom handle. Care should be taken to surrounded with erysipelas in the surgery select a piece of shell without a flaw. Be. where it was brought to be vaccinated; in ginners should choose tolerably smooth the third case no definite source of erysipepieces; but practiced workers prefer those latic infection could be discovered, but the which are irregular in their surface, because child lived in a low-lying place, close to they furnish more scope for the exercise of swampy and unhealthy meadows. Thus, skill. In cutting these the design follows none of the cases were traceable to the the convolution of the shell. Care must be vaccine lymph; and its innocence is attested taken in cutting not to let the ground show by the fact that other children were vacci. through; but a skillful cutter will so ar- nated with the same lymph without the range his design as to produce the blush of occurrence of untoward symptoins. Tho the ground in such portions as to enhance question arises next as to the degree of the value of his work. Shells are further danger of erysipelas entering the vaccinaliable to the faults of displaying crooked | tion-scratch, or the wound left by a ruptured vesicle, the same as it might any other the most heavily timbered tracts, proved wound. According to statistics presented admirably adapted to agricultural purposes by Dr. Buchanan, the proportion of such , and were cleared for cultivation, while the accidents that occurred in England and open places, with their light soils, were Wales during 1883 was 81 infants dying of abandoned, to become wastes of scrub and septic disease out of 763,192 vaccinated. copsewood.
Great topographical changes
have been wrought by the disappearance of Lime-Salts in the Food and the Teeth. the fens and bogs. Some have been natu-Dr. W. D. Miller, of Berlin, has been rally silted us, and others have been arti. making experiments to determine how far ficially drained; while their sites are still changes can be produced in teeth by the indicated by such Sazon names as Bogside, presence or absence of lime-salts in food. Bogend, and Mossflats; and by the black, His method is to cxtract a tooth from a peaty soil which marks where they once lay. healthy dog, and then to feed the animal No one would be led to suspect by the er. upon food containing but little lime-salts amination of modern maps the number of for three months; then to remove a second lakes that once dotted the north of England tooth, and change the food to one contain and Scotland; but inspection of old maps ing an excess of salts. After four months will show many sheets of water that do not of this treatment another tooth is extracted. now exist, or are much reduced in size. The author has found that an appreciable Topographical names will reveal the sites loss of lime-salts occurs in the first stage, of other and sometimes still older lakes, which amounts in one case to more than while geological evidence will tell of other one per cent, and that the proportion of of which there is no human record. Other lime-salts rises again to normal during the changes have been and are going on along second stage.
the shore, where the land is washed away
at some places and added to at others. All The Making of Britain.— In studying, these things are subjects for profitable by gcological evidences, the changes which study, and call for it; and wc may add that have taken place in Great Britain since it similar changes are going on and invite atwas first inhabited by man, Professor Archi- tention in the United States. Their prog: bald Geikie goes back to the time when it
ress is much more rapid than any one could was not yet an island, but formed a part of suppose till he begins to make it the subthe European Continent. Its separation oc-ject of careful observation. curred by gradual subsidence, in which the chalk ridge between Dover and Calais was The Raby-Mines of Burmah.—The ruby. the last landmark to disappear; and “along mine tract in Burmah, according to Mr. G. this narrow ridge the carliest Celtic immi- Skelton Streeter's description in the British grants may have made their way.” It was Association, is a large valley some twelve probably finally washed away as much as miles long by eight miles broad, and comsunk. At the dawn of history, the general posed of several small valleys, or rather appearance of the country must have been basins. It lies on the slope of the Sibwee characterized by wide-spread forests, abun Doung, which divides the Irrawaddy and dant bogs and fens, and a profusion of Salwen Rivers. The valley bears signs of lakes; and at the first coming of the Romans volcanic origin. The mines are of three the greater part of the country was probably distinct kinds. The first is furnished by covered with wood. Large tracts of these the metamorphic rock, whose mass is travwoods persisted for many hundred years, ersed in all directions by huge fissures, and as late as the twelfth century the woods caused probably in the past by shrinkage. to the north of London swarmed with wild | These fissures are filled with a soft, clayey boars and wild oxen, and the woods every earth, generally containing rubies. At preswhere were the resorts of broken and des- ent they are worked in a very superficial perate men. In the course of generations manner. The mincs of the second rariety; the wood and open land have largely changed are on the sides of these rocky bills, where places. The belts of clay soil, originally diversified strata of clayey consistency haped
been upheaved. The natives wash this indefinite time was perfectly logical when earth slowly away by hydraulic mining the premises were admitted ; and it became The third system of mining is by sinking obvious that the alternative was between pits in the lower or plain parts of the val. that doctrine and the theory of transmutation ley, and washing the earth extracted by of species. The having made this thought hand.
clear is declared by Professor Newton to
have been a great service rendered to the Efects of an Earthquake.- A paper was new theory by one who was its most deterread in the British Association by Dr. T. mined opponent. Sterry Hunt and Mr. J. Douglas, describing their observations of the effects of an earth. A Floral Moth-Trap. Mr. Robert E. C. quake which took place in Sonora, Mexico, Stearns, in the “ American Naturalist,” deon May 3, 1887. The authors found the re- scribes the plant Araujia albens as a “mothsults of the undulatory movements of the trap.” The plant, formerly called Physisoil apparent in the San Pedro and Sulphur anthus, is a native of Buenos Ayres, but has Spring Valleys in great numbers of cracks been pretty widely distributed in the United and dislocations. For distances of several States, and may be found now at places as hundred feet, sometimes with a generally far apart as Boston and San Francisco. The north and south course, vertical down-throws insects are caught in the flower, which is on one side of from one foot to two feet trumpet-shaped, faring at the mouth, where were seen, the depressed portion rising the petals divide, and then uniting and formeither gradually or by a vertical step to the ing a tube, which is swollen into a bulbous original level. Branching, and in some form where the corolla joins the calyx. The cases intersecting, cracks were observed. stamens are furnished with side wing.like These depressions were evidently connected processes and exterior spurs, which press with outbursts of sand and water, which, against the gymnccium, and hide the ovaries along cracks-marked by depressions on and pollen-masses. “The moth, in pursuit both sides — sometimes covered areas of of the nectar, first reaches that portion conmany hundred square feet with layers a tained in the pockets between the bases of foot or more in depth, marked bere and the spurs ; then, in search of more, having there by craters, two feet in diameter, already thrust the proboscis down the tube through which water had risen during the of the flower, describing a curve between outburst of these volcanoes.
the exterior of the stamineal crown or mass
and the inside of the bulb of the perigonium, Agassiz's Service to Evolution.-Pro- it has to push the proboscis upward in order fessor Le Conte's ascription to Professor to reach that portion of the flower where Agassiz of the credit of having laid the the anther-cells, pollen-masses, and glands basis for the doctrine of evolution is con- are in close juxtaposition.” Having satisfirmed, from a different point of view, by ficd its hunger, or otherwise, upon attempt. Professor Alfred Newton, in his opening ing to withdraw the proboscis by a direct addross before thc Section of Biology of the pull—which it can not do, because the organ Dritish Association. The speaker, referring is not provided with any muscular arrangeto Agassiz's doctrine of centers of creation, ment by which the curved motion made in said that "creation in his mind was no entering can be reversed the proboscis figurative expression. He meant by it ..., “becomes wedged in between the edges of a direct act of God-in other words, his what may be termed the anther-wings, or belief was, that there had been going on rather the edges thercof, and is held tight, around us a series of mysterious perform- very much in the same way that an oldances, not one of which had ever been con- fashioned boot - jack grips a boot. The sciously witnessed by a human eye, each of more the moth pulls, the tighter or firmer which had for its object the independent the grip, and escape is impossible, unless formation of a new living being, animal or the flower has reached such a degree of maplant.” This doctrine of a continuous series turity that its substance has become someof miraculous acts having gone on for an what softened or wilted.”