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and the special hurtful resistances to motion, , fields when the plants are in blossom, and the calculations of which have hitherto been will frequently alight upon one's hands ; confined to the analytical method. No meth- these sweat-flies' are feared by not a few od being known to the author by which the persons, under the belief that they will frictional resistances and efficiency of any 'sting.' All are sunshine-loving, and will desired mechanism can be graphically deter- rarely be found except in the middle of mined, he has endeavored, in his lectures bright, unclouded days." About three hunbefore the polytechnic schools of Aix-la- dred species are described in this volume Chapelle, to show the relations existing be from the region north of Mexico, in such a tween the forces in mechanism in a simpler way that the author hopes that even the form than that offered by the analytical non-entomological student, with a little exmethod. The present treatise, which the ertion, may be able to identify them. translator characterizes as containing “almost discoveries ” on the subject, has grown The Use of ELECTRICITY IN GYNECOLOGICAL out of that endeavor.


M. D., St. Louis.

Translated from the German of Max von is a valuable agent in treatment, which had,
FÖRSTER. New York : D. Van Nostrand. however, in his practice failed to give uni.
Pp. 164. Price, 50 cents.
HERR VON FÖRSTER's practical manual on

formly satisfactory results. He set himself the application of gun-cotton, which rests

to work to investigate the causes of the dilargely upon the evidence of more or less versity in the efficiency of its application, extensive experiments performed in Ger.

and publishes his experiments and the remany, is preceded by an account of the sults of them in the present paper. His manufacture, properties, and uses of mod decided success—in the treatment of pelvic

disorders—in the past year, “no longer ern gun-cotton, by Lieutenant John P. accidental, but the result of method ”-has Wisser, of the United States Army.

convinced him of the value of the remedy,

which he is assured, when fully developed, SINOPSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SYRPHIDÆ will assume prominence. Its success and

(Bulletin of the United States National Museum, No. 31). By SAMUEL W. Wil general adoption, he believes, depends upon LISTON. Washington: Government Print- precision and uniformity of measure and ing-Office. Pp. 335.

record; and he has given here, as a contriThe family of Syrphidæ is one of the bution to those factors, his own system, most extensive in the order of Diptera. which includes the milli-ampère intensity “They contain among them many of the of the current; size of electrodes for calcu. brightest-colored flies, and numerous speci- lation of density; time of application, for mens are sure to appear in every general calculation of quantity; resistance of the collection of insects. None are injurious in tissues in ohms when such resistance was their habits to man's economy, and many unusual, or when an explanation of the inof them are very beneficial.” To be more tensity of the current seemed called for. definite in popular description—"they are flower-flies, and feed upon honey and pol. THE CITY GOVERNMENT OF St. Louis. By len. They are observed on blossoms of MARSHALL S. Snow. Baltimore: N. Mur. sweet-smelling, melliferous plants, such as ray. Pp. 40. Price, 25 cents. the Hymenoptera prefer ; and patches in

graph is one of the Johns Hopbloom of blackberry (Rubus), wild-cherry kins “ University Studies in Historical and (Prunus), dogwood (Cornus), Canada thistle Political Science.” The “Studies" are now (Cirsium), and elderberry (Sambucus), will in their fifth series, which is especially dealways be sure to reward the patience of the voted to the subjects of municipal governcollector. Some species, as those of Syritta, ment and economics. The history of St. Sperophoria, Mesograpta, etc., will be seen Louis is given from its foundation in 1764, wherever there are blossoms. Species of the with the various steps of its growth as an last, especially, are very abundant about corn- | infant settlement, a community, a munici

This mor

pality, and a city absorbing the county, , appendix. The volume is furnished also down to the operation of the present char- with an analytical table of contents, an inter, which went into effect in 1877. Mr. des, and a bibliography. Snow believes that a careful study of this charter“ will convince any impartial man of THE CLAIM OF MoraL INSANITY IN ITS its great worth as a framework for a sys

MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS. By JAMES tem of municipal government. The length

HENDRIE LLOYD, M. D., Philadelphia.

Pp. 16. of the term of its municipal officers; the

The author, who has had a large expecarefully-framed provisions to secure hon

rience with cases of insanity, has not seen est registration of voters and an honest vote at the polls; the guards and checks upon all given in the

books, of moral insanity; that

one case which answers to the description who administer the financial affairs of the city; the provisions against an undue in moral nature ; but all cases were accom

is, of pure and simple dislocation of the crease of the public debt; the plan by which

panied with perversions of the understand. the important offices filled by the mayor's ing. He believes, therefore, that the conappointment are not vacant until the be- ception of “the cerebrum as an individual ginning of the third year of his term of unit, whose special act is always a reflex office, so that as rewards of political work done during a heated campaign they are too definition and classification of insanity, as

process of ideation, tends to a satisfactory far in the dim distance to prejudice seriously well as to an intelligible application of our the merits of an election—these are a few knowledge to the solution of medico-legal of its important advantages as a plan of questions much superior to anything attain. city government. Since its adoption it has able by the distinctions of the metaphysiworked well, and but few amendments have cians or the arbitrary tests of the judges.” been suggested."


Lady. By FEDERICO GARLANDA, Ph. D. OLOGY. By ALFRED C. Haddon, M. A., New York: A. Lovell & Co. Pp. 225. M. R. I. A., Professor of Zoology in the

Price, $1.25. Royal College of Science, Dublin. Il

This is a series of popular essays on lustrated. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 336. Price, $6.

English philology, which, together with This work is especially designed for much curious and useful information, conmedical students, and for those who have a veys a vivid idea of the contrast between knowledge of the main facts of comparative the modern method of scientific research in anatomy and systematic zoology. There the department of language and the ways are eight chapters, dealing with maturation of the old etymologists. Separate chapters and fertilization of the ovum, segmentation show how the development of industry, and gastrulation, formation of the meso

ethical feelings, the color-sense, and calcublast, general formation of the body and lation may be traced in language. In andevelopment of the embryonic appendages, other chapter the chief reasons why words organs derived from the epiblast, hypo- change their meanings are given. The aublast, and mesoblast, respectively, and clos- thor does not utterly condemn slang, but ing with a chapter of general considera- points out that language gains some of its tions. Certain structures and processes

most vigorous expressions from the better which are of secondary importance, or pre

class of slang sent especially difficult problems, have been briefly mentioned or omitted. Where hy

Health LESSONS. A Primary Book. By

JEROME WALKER, M. D. Illustrated. potheses have been introduced, care has

New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 194. been taken that the student may not mis- Price, 56 cents. take them for facts. Important matter has No child can fail to be interested and been distinguished by large type, and most instructed by this little book. The subjectof the figures have been so drawn as to ad- matter is embodied in simple and vivid lanmit of distinctive coloring. The classifica- guage, and is illustrated by an abundance tion of genera adopted is embodied in an of original and entertaining pictures. These


lessons deal almost entirely with hygiene, | power to grasp and prove any simple geo the author deeming it injudicious to require metrical truth that may be set before him. young children to learn much about thc “On this account, the demonstrations of names and locations of bones and blood- the main propositions, which at first are vessels, etc. The book is divided into six- full and complete, are gradually more and teen“ lessons ” of moderate length, each more condensed, until at last they are somehaving at the end a short list of questions times reduced to mere hints, by the aid of with answers. Following these is a chapter which the full proof is to be developed ; and on “ Accidents, Injuries, and Poisons.” Some numerous additional theorems and problems practical suggestions to teachers of health- are constantly given as exercises for pracsubjects are prefixed to the volume. Specialtice in original work.” teaching as to the effects of alcoholic stimu. lants and of narcotics upon the human system is given in connection with the descrip

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ilton and Do Tocqueville. Baltimore : Johns Hopstudent of human anatomy these facts have kins University. Pp. 57. 25 cents. been concentrated in one chapter. The

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ly." Vol. I, No. 1, September, 1987. London: Walter degeneration of osseous and cartilaginous Packard, A. 8. On the Syncarida, on the Gamptissues.” The metamorphosis of contractile sonychidæ, and on the Anthracardæ (new fussil

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A. Harrison. New York and whicago: A.S. Barnes ton and pectoral girdle, bones correspond. & Co. Pp. 66. ing to them in position have been found in Jones, William H. Federal Taxes and State certain of the lower animals, showing that Pp. 135. $1.

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tions of the Steam-Engine. Pbiladelphia: J. B CHAUVENET'S TREATISE ELEMENTARY | Lippincott Company. I'p 289. $3. GEOMETRY, Revised and abridged by

Cooper, Sarah. Animal Life in the Sea and on W. E. BYERLY, Professor of Mathemat

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413, ics in Harvard University. Philadel

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Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission. from the student. He maintains that the ing-Office. Pp. 495. student should be compelled to think and

Three Good Giants. From Rabelais. Compiled

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Groene, William H. Wurtz's Elements of Mod. , some facts indicate that the presence in the ern Chemistry. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott Company. Pp. 770. $2.50.

air of products of coal-combustion is unfaMarks, William Dennis. Nystroin's Pocket- vorable to it. The character of the seasons phia : J. B. Lippincott Company. Pp. 670. $3.50. when it is most prevalent favors the theory

Knox, Thomas W. Decisive Battles since Wa- that its specific contagium is a mold or terloo. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, Pp. fungus, which flourishes most strongly in a

Ridgway, Robert. A Manual of North Ameri- damp and smokeless air. Koch's discovery can Birds. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott Compady. Pp. 630, with 124 Plates. $7.50.

of the Bacillus tuberculosis as the specific Jackson, Edward P. A Manual of Astronomia contagium of tubercular disease places that cal Geography. Boston : D. C. Heath & Co. Pp. malady in the class of contagious disorders. 78.

Munroe, Charles E. Notes on the Literature The fact that milk has been found capable of Explosives. No. XIII. Pp. 24.

of conveying disease directly or indirectly Land, Dr. C. H., Detroit, Mich. The Inconsistency of our Code of Dental Ethics. Pp. 82.

suggests the prudence of boiling it whenever Lewis, T. H. Incised Bowlders in the Upper suspicion of danger exists. Advances in do. Minnesota Valley. Pp. 4.

mestic sanitation have mostly been limited Hay, 0. P., Irvington, Ind. On the Manner of Deposit of the Glacial Drift. Pp. 8. The Red-to applications of principles already ascerleaded Woodpecker a Hoarder. Pp. 4.

tained, especially in the drainage and waterHolmes, Mary E. The Morphology of the Carinæ upon the Septa of Rugose Corals. Boston: supply of dwellings. The belief is steadily

Everhart, Professor Edgar. Infant Food and In- gaining ground that water once polluted by faut Feeding. Houston, Texas. Pp. 20.

sewage can not be regarded as safe for drink. ing. The introduction of constant supplies

of water into towns has been of great benePOPULAR MISCELLANY.

fit. The separation of rainfall from sewage

is growing in faror. The purification and Recent Advances in Sanitary Science.- utilization of sewage are receiving increased According to a review of the subject in “Na- attention. The present condition of knowl. ture," the principal fields in which advance edge on the subject demands that sewage has been recently made in sanitary science should, wherever it is possible, be utilized are the etiology of such diseases as Asiatic on land, as manure, in the production of cholera, typhoid fever, diphtheria, and tu- crops and dairy produce; failing in this, it bercular disorders of the lungs. The or. should be freed from its solids by precipiganism observed by Koch may not yet have tation, and then purified on land laid out as been proved to be the actual cause of chol-filter-beds. In all cases, efficient purificaera ; but it has been shown to be different tion, not the production of crops, should be in its mode of growth from all other organ. the controlling object. isms asserted to be identical with it, and is therefore diagnostic of the disease. In any Chinese in America.- Professor Stewart event, the validity of the measures relied Culin, in the American Association, deupon to prevent cholera from breaking out scribed the characteristics of the Chinesc and spreading is not affected by the results immigrants in America. They all come of Koch's researches. While no micro or from the departments of Kwang Chan and ganism has yet been found which can be Shan-King, in the province of Kwantung. asserted to be the peculiar origin of typhoid They describe themselves as “Puntis," or fever, the view that that disease arises from natives, as distinguished from the tribes a specific contagion, and is not propagated called “Hal-Kus,” or “Shangers," who selde novo, is gaining ground; and we have dom emigrate, and divide themselves into learned so much regarding the mode of ori. the people of the Sam-Yup (three towns) gin and spread of the disease, that the dis- and those of Sz'-Yup (four towns), from covery of its active cause would probably terms applied to different divisions of their not greatly affect the measures now taken native province. The people of the differ. for its prevention. No results that can be ent districts show distinguishing peculiariexactly formulated have been obtained re- ties of speech and customs. Representaspecting diphtheria. It is not invariably tives of some twenty or thirty clans only are dependent on insanitary conditions, and found among the immigrants. The stores

are the centers around which life in the sandstone, with flat summits, and looks, Chinese colonies revolves, furnishing sup when viewed from the east, like gigantic plies of Chinese wares, and serving as club- fortresses. The base of these cliffs is comrooms and assembly-halls. Nearly all of posed of a natural earth-slope of the modthe Chinese in America bave passed some ern débris of the fallen materials of the of their early years at school, where they walls. Evidence is presented that this tablelearned to write some of the characters in land extended yet farther to the west from their language, and to read it with more or twenty to sixty miles. The vegetation and less facility. Among the immigrants from soil of the tops of these miniature Rorai. Hoh-Shan and the districts adjacent to Can. mas are precisely similar to those of the ton are found many of considerable attain. great plateau, whereas the vegetation of the ments-not men who would be considered surrounding lowlands is quite different in scholars in China, but clerks, who are able character. to read and understand much of the classical literature of their country, and whose Some Notes about Bees.-A recently sympathies and traditions are allied with published book by Mr. Frank R. Cheshire, those of the literary aristocracy. This class lecturer at South Kensington, gives some forms a small part, however, of the whole curious items of information about bees. number.

A lens magnifying fifty times will reveal

the tracheæ, and also the beautiful “salivary The Table-topped Hills of the Amazon. glands,” which a skillful operator may ex– To any one ascending the Amazon River, tract through the head, after immersing the said Mr. James W. Wells, in the Royal Geo- insect up to its neck in wax." There is congraphical Society, a most noticeable feature siderable discussion among apiarists as to strikes his attention, in the table topped the uses of these glands, in which is inci. hills of the Serras de Erere and Obidos, and dentally included the question whether bees the somewhat similar formation on the oppo- fced their young by regurgitating semi-disite bank, at the rear of the Santarem. These gested food, or by a glandular system proopposite islands form the walls of the val. ducing a nutritive secretion. Mr. Cheshire ley through which the river, once probably finds in the digestive system, in which “ the a great inland lake, has excavated its way salivary and gastric secretions perform preto the sea. Their summits, instead of being cisely the same functions in both,”... a most ridges, extend in the form of undulating helpful similarity of physical structure besavannas far inland, ever ascending, fur- tween mankind and bees.” Bees have, how. rowed with hollows and valleys by many a ever, the great advantage over mankind of stream or water-course. Strange and in being able to carry a large stock of food teresting as is the appearance of these cliffs and drink in their insides, and of having the of one thousand feet in height, yet they are power of feeding upon these stores by means not exceptional features of the basin of the of what is called the “stomach-mouth,” at Amazons; at its farther western extremity, in pleasure; or, if they choose, they can conthe Serra de Cupati, bordering on the banks vert these provisions into building materiof the Rio Japura, and also on the western als. Their foot is furnished with a very face of the Chapada da Mangabeira, are en- sharp and powerful claw, and with a sort of countered identical formations, and even to soft pad that gives out a clammy secretion, the north in Roraima and its brother Kuke- by means of which they are able to walk nam, also exists a somewhat similar appear- on smooth surfaces. It is by the claws that ance. These great, precipitous bluffs, and bees hang one to another in swarming. The isolated table-topped hills are indicative, or cutting off of a bce's head does not apparat least suggestive, of a great denudation ently of necessity kill it; for “ drones in that has either long since occarred, or is yet confinement will sometimes live very much happening. The Chapada da Mangabeira longer without their heads than with them.” rises gradually and by regular gradients The head, however, is not an unimportant from the San Francisco River to the divide, part of the bee, which has a larger proporwhere it appears as perpendicular walls of tion of brain than many other insects. The

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