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would add this description of a case observed | most humbly beg leave to make, is to an at " Harmon's Bottom," in Bedford County, error that the writer of a most able and inPennsylvania, twenty years ago. Two sugar- teresting article in the July issue of “ The maples had been united by the natural Popular Science Monthly," entitled “The grafting of the branch of one of them upon North American Lakes, has doubtless the trunk of the other, about six feet away, unwittingly been guilty of. I do not preand at ten feet above the ground. The tree- sume to say that he was led to the comtrunks were both intact, with their roots, mission of the error by any ignorance of his but the trunk of the second tree was strik subject, but rather by a want of a sufficient ingly smaller below the graft than above it, knowledge of the local nomenclature of and one might consider this due to retarda- Louisiana. tion of the circulation below, as well as in- To quote the author's words—“Lake creased flow of sap above. În your corre- Borgne and Lake Pontchartrain have been spondent's illustration, the trunk below, captured from the Gulf by the delta of the being severed from its roots, became an Mississippi, while numerous small lakes, appendage to the rest of the circulating sys- called bayous,” etc. We will say nothing tem. It has been speculated that there is of the derivation of the word, which, of itcirculation downward in plants, the roots self, can not be construed to mean a lake, discharging to as well as eliminating from for, alas ! local usages frequently defy all at. the soil, and that this action unfits a soil as tempts at classification, and are by no means much for repetition of crops as does ex- fair criteria for the true meaning and aphaustion of nourishing constituents. The plication of a term; but, as a Louisianian, preference for change in kinds of trees that we will say that the term “bayou," in the spring up after forest-clearing—a natural article cited, has been used under some misrotation of crops--has been very generally apprehension. remarked.
F. Z. SCHELLENBERG. If the author will procure for himself Lewin, PENNSYLVANIA, September 8, 1887. an authentic map of Louisiana, he will find
the lower part of the State to be covered
with almost a network of small water-courses, WHAT IS A BAYOU ?
although they scarcely deserve the name, Editor Popular Science Monthly :
varying in size froin the smallest "creek” Sir: A friendly, well-meaning, and time- to channels just navigable by small vesly correction is never amiss. When the er- sels, all exceedingly sinuous and very riverror to be rectified is such as is likely to like. These are what, in Louisiana, are arouse feelings of regretful remonstrance in called “ bayous.” Whatever may be the a community, the correction is the more par- geological origin and nature of these bodies, donable; when it is likely to color the opin- the fact still remains that the term “ bayou," ion of a nation, the correction becomes im- in Louisiana, is applied to nothing at all reperative.
sembling a "lake.” Respectfully yours, The correction which the writer, one of
C. M. WILLIAMS. community” supposed above, would CARROLLTON, LOUISIANA, September 5, 1887.
SCIENCE IN HARNESS.
provided for by the school laws of N.
O journal has upheld more stead- many States. It is only right, there
ily than “The Popular Science fore, that we should assign our reasons Monthly " the principle that, as fast as for holding that this is not a case of they are established, the truths of sci- the legitimate application of scientific ence shall be applied to useful purposes, truths to practical life. and, through popular education, be In the first place, it is an abuse made as widely available as possible for of power on the part of the majority. the general guidance of life. And yet In the "temperance” controversy as a we can not look with favor upon what distinct social issue we have no wish many persons doubtless regard as a very to interfere; but we can not ignore signal and happy example of the utiliza- the fact that there is such a controtion of scientific conclusions—we mean versy, nor can we consent to believe, the authoritative and dogmatic teach with the advocates of prohibitory legising as to the effects of alcohol, now | lation, that their opponents are necessarily persons devoid of all high mo- | which the latter do not believe to be tives, and hardly to be distinguished true is ur fair. from the criminal population. But if But there is another view of the mata minority in the State is to be respect- ter. Are the advocates of such instruced so long as it is law-abiding, its opin- tion prepared to have it communications are also to be respected; and to ed in a thoroughly non-partisan spirit? seize hold of the school-machinery of Are they prepared to have the whole the State to inculcate opinions that are truth taught, or do they want only that not accepted by the minority, and that part of the truth which is favorable to tend to set the minority in a very un- the specific end they have in view? Are favorable light, is not right or just. If they prepared, for example, to give any every triumphant party were to seize fair representation to the views of those the public schools for the inculcation who consider that alcohol has its imporof doctrines favorable to its own party tant uses, dietetic and social ? A few interests, there would soon be an end years ago the “Contemporary Review" of our public-school system. It would opened its columns to a discussion of always be easy to invoke the name of the alcohol question; and we are safe science. If it were desired to rear a race in saying that there was a preponderof protectionists, it would only be neces- ance of opinion among the many emisary to claim that you were teaching nent men who joined in the discussion, the truths of political economy. The in favor of a moderate use of alcoholic proper text-books would be prepared, beverages. In the August number of and teachers, on pain of dismissal, the “North American Review” a wellwould have to enunciate the doctrines known physician of this city enters a of Henry O. Carey and Horace Greeley. plea against the indiscriminate condemAnd so in the days of slavery the science nation of narcotics and stimulants. Is of ethnology might have been invoked all this opinion to go unrepresented either on the side of abolition or in de- when the alcohol question is introduced fense of the slave system, according to into the schools? Of course it must, or the leaning of the majority. At this the specific object of the teaching would moment we have the president of a be ruined. We say, therefore, that this New England college recommending is not teaching science; it is harnessing the majority in the several States to science to the “temperance” cart, and use their power to enforce the teaching driving her under instructions from of certain specific views of New Testa- "temperance" Leadquarters. ment history wbich he is pleased to We need not, however, confine ourdeclare all competent critics have ac- selves to general speculations as to what cepted.
is likely to happen when science is made “But,"
say the advocates of the subservient to the propagation of special teaching to which we refer, " we only views, for we have an example—and a wish to inculcate the real results of striking one-of what does happen in scientific research in regard to alcohol.” such a case. In a recent number of To which we rejoin that, in a communi- the “ Boston Medical and Surgical ty like this, it is too soon to inculcate Journal,” Dr. Joseph W. Warren, asthe truth, şupposing you have it, if the sistant in physiology in the Medical issue is still practically open, and if School of Harvard University, gives an large numbers of your fellow-citizens account of a pamphlet on the subject are not persuaded that what you call of “ Alcoholic Liquids as Therapeutic the truth is the truth. Minorities have Agents,” issued by the Women's Temtheir rights even when they are in the perance Publication Association of Chiwrong, and to use a school system which cago. This pamphlet, it is true, conthe minority support to teach opinions sists of a chapter from a larger work on the “Principles and Practice of Med- entangled amid many social problems icine"; but the chapter in question of heredity, poor food, overwork, bad was selected for use as a tract because cooking, and bad homes, all quite as imit states the case against alcobol with portant, if not more important, than the all the exaggeration and suppression question of alcohol." The main object needed for party purposes. Dr. War- of the present article, however, is to ren describes it as “full of error and protest, in the name of science, against misstatement concerning the physio- the tethering of it to any party policy logical action of alcohol,” while "the whatever; and in the name of social therapeutic inferences drawn therefrom and political justice against laying hold are, to say the least, most doubtful.” of the public schools for the propagaOne example will suffice to show to tion of opinions based as yet upon very what extent—if we may trust Dr. War- incomplete inductions. Our temperance ren, who writes with a very full com- reformers have ample scope for a wise mand of his subject—the truth has been and beneficial activity without seeking economized in the pamphlet in questo control the schools and without pertion. The author, after stating that verting opinion by the dissemination of “the experimental researches of Lalle. unfounded statements under the guise mand, Perrin, and Duroy proved con- of science. clusively that alcohol was eliminated as alcohol, unchanged chemically, from the lungs, skin, and kidneys," adds that
A FURTIER ADVANCE. these experiments have been confirmed, We noticed, at the time of its apexcept that it is claimed that “the pearance, an article by the celebrated amount eliminated is not equal to the Roman Catholic biologist, Mr. St. whole quantity taken.” “Surely,” says George Mivart, claiming for members of Dr. Warren, no beginner would infer the Catholic Church the fullest liberty from the last quotation that every com- of opinion in all matters pertaining to petent investigator had found the amount science. In Mr. Mivart's opinion, it was eliminated, not only not equal to the a fortunate thing for the world that the whole quantity taken, but really to form Church had blundered so egregiously only a small fraction of it; yet such is in condemning and punishing Galileo actually the case." We have not space for putting forward the true theory of to follow Dr. Warren in his very thor- the heavens. It was a lesson that the ough examination of this anti-alcohol Church would not be likely to forget manifesto; but we very heartily con- as to the expediency of minding its cur with himn in some of his concluding own business; and it was an instance remarks. ** There are times,” he says, to which the laity could always appeal " when it may be well not to tell the in case ecclesiastical authority should whole truth; but I have yet to learn ever seek to set itself up as a judge how the human race can be benefited, of scientific questions. To-day, after a in the long run, by systematic decep- lapse of two years, Mr. Mivart comes tion, and by the wholesale circulation forward with another plea for liberof what is, to say the least, not true." ty—this time in connection with quesAgain : “The temperance movement of tions of history and criticism. He the future will have to recognize that states that, in writing his former article, the field for its activity lies not in the he purposely expressed himself very dissemination of falsehood about what strongly, in order that, if there was anyalcohol is and does, but in the control thing in the position he took of a naof its rational use and in the prevention ture to call for ecclesiastical censure, of all abuse. Intemperance is a terrible he might hear of it; but that, far from weed, but its roots will be found to be l having been visited with censure, he had received "warm thanks from mem- way of apprehending, with some apbers of the clergy, most varied as to proach to accuracy, what the truth is rank and position,” and particularly as to the dates, authorities, and course from "a most esteemed superior of one of development of the writings which of the mediæval religious orders.” He were inspired for our spiritual profit.” therefore feels that it is time to take We presume Mr. Mivart will now another forward step, and say that, in wait to see whether ecclesiastical cenmatters of historical and Biblical criti- sure will fall upon him for this last utcism, the only appeal must hereafter be terance. He says he does not think it to facts. It will not suffice to say that will. He has reason to believe that such and such statements are contained“ broad views are not in disfavor at in Holy Writ, or have formed part of the Vatican, though sudden or abrupt the ordinary teaching of the Church; action is neither to be expected nor dethe only pertinent questions will be: sired.” It seems, then, to be a question Are they true ? Are they supported as to whether that section of the Chrisby such evidence as challenges the as-tian Church which has hitherto been sent of impartial inquirers? He then accounted most conservative of tradiproceeds to give a summary of the lead-tional opinions, and most resolutely ing conclusions of such advanced Bib- hostile to all the new views of science, lical critics as Reuss, Colenso, Well- is not in reality destined to prove itself hausen, and Kuenen, and states that, the most hospitable and friendly to such while he is not prepared—does not, in- new views. The situation is a singular deed, feel himself competent—to say one, and merits the attentive considerthat the views of these eminent men ation of some excellent people who conare correct in every particular, he is sider their theology a great advance in convinced, after careful inquiry, that point of liberality and rationality upon they are correct in the main. He con- that of Rome, and who yet have an evil siders that these men occupy, in rela- eye for such scientific doctrines as that tion to Biblical criticism, very much of evolution, to say nothing of a free the same position that Copernicus oc- critical handling of the sacred texts. cupied in relation to the astronomy of On the subject of Biblical criticism we his age; and that, just as the world ac- have no opinions to offer; but we must cepted the views of Copernicus when say that we feel like agreeing with Mr. it became intelligent enough to under- Mivart that, in this field, as in every stand them, so the world will eventu- other, the authorities to be deferred to ally adopt the views of the liberal school are those who have a competent knowlof Biblical critics. How far these writ-edge of facts, not those who are mereers go may be judged (in one instance) ly the official conservators of ancient from Mr. Mivart's statement that “the dogmas. book of Chronicles is considered (by them) as a thoroughly unhistorical
LITERARY NOTICES. work, the history contained in it being habitually falsified in accordance with APPLETONS' PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. By JOHN the point of view of the priestly code."
D. QUACKENBOS and others. New York:
D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 140. Price, According to Mr. Mivart, it is quite
$1.60. open to the members of the Catholic
This work has been prepared on a new Church to accept these views, and, in plan. Physical geography, comprising parts all such questions, to yield simply to of a number of sciences, covers a wider field the weight of historical evidence. “It than one man can be thoroughly familiar is," he says, "the men of historical sci- with; hence, in order to secure the advanence now, and not theologians or con- tage of special knowledge over the whole gregations, who are putting us in the field, this work has been written by several
hands. The section on the general struct- | entific methods in the every-day work of ure and geological history of the earth has the factory; the result has been a steady been prepared by Dr. John S. Newberry, progress and improvement in the methods Professor of Geology and Paleontology in of obtaining colors on fabrics, consequent Columbia College ; that devoted to the geo- on the introduction of new coloring-matters logical history of the North American Con- and a better understanding of the properties tinent, by Professor Charles H. Hitchcock, of the substances used, and of the princiof Dartmouth College; the portion relating ples which govern the formation and fixato general physiology and the physical feat- tion of each color on the fiber. ures of the United States, by Mr. Henry The printing of tissues—that is, the art Gannett, Chief Geographer of the United of fixing various colors which form more or States Geological Survey ; the pages explain. less elaborate designs on cloth—is a very ing terrestrial magnetism, with the chap- complicated process, requiring for its sucters on volcanoes and earthquakes, coral cessful completion the assistance of all the islands, the earth's waters, and meteorology, skill which chemical and mechanical progby Dr. W. Le Conte Stevens, Professor of ress has placed at the service of manufactPhysics in the Packer Collegiate Institute. This progress, however, which perDr. N. L. Britton, Lecturer in Botany, Co- mits of greater facilities being introduced lumbia College, furnished the chapter on gradually, rendering possible the adoption plant-life ; Dr. C. Hart Merriam, the Orni. of novel and more complicated designs which thologist of the Department of Agriculture, could not be easily employed with older those relating to zoölogy and the animal methods, makes it at the same time imperalife of the United States; Professor Will tive on those engaged in this branch of iniam H. Dall, of the Smithsonian Institution, dustry to keep themselves posted on all the that on ethnology; and Mr. George F. Kunz, forward steps made by others, in order to gem expert and mineralogist with Messrs. meet the artistic requirements of the conTiffany & Co., of New York, that on precious sumer, and the competition of rival manustones. Throughout the book references to facturers. standard works have been inserted, which This progress is so steady and gradual will guide pupils and teachers to fuller that it has to be followed incessantly. Pub. sources of information on the various topics lications treating specially of this branch of which can be only touched upon in a school manufactures are not very plentiful; the con. text-book. The text is copiously illustrated tinual changes and improvements are liable with pictures, diagrams, and maps in color, to deprive a book of its practical usefulness on which no pains have been spared to se- a few years after its publication. A comcure accuracy and mechanical excellence. plete work on the subject, embodying the
latest devices and processes in use, can, THE PRINTING OF COTTON FABRICS, COMPRIS- therefore, not help being welcome both to.
ING CALICO BLEACHING, PRINTING, AND the trained colorist and to the student. The
ing at the Technical School of Manchester, The applications of new chemical dis- the center of the printing industry. coveries to technical purposes have become Theory and practice are given an equal so frequent during the last quarter of a cent- share of attention, which they both deserve ury as to cause almost a complete change in an art in which scientific training, skill, in several important branches of modern experience, and artistic taste have all to conindustry, developing new fields of human tribute to the result. The opening chapter application and effecting marked improve- is devoted to the history of calico-printing ments in manufacturing generally. Like which is traced from its origin in India, to other industries, the colorist branch, which its present flourishing expansion. may be said to be the pet child of modern Before the tissue can actually be printchemical investigation, has not been slow ed upon, it is necessary that it should be to feel the effect of the introduction of sci- bleached ; to this important preliminary op