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complete stranger. In short, we expect a great deal from our servants, and it is reasonable to ask, What do we give in return, what have we ever done for a class on whom we are so dependent, what effort has been made to raise the tone of service, what inducements are offered to respectable young women to enter the ranks ? None, or comparatively none! High wages do not prove a sufficient attraction; in no case is the remuneration high enough to secure a competence for old age, without many, many years of toil; there are no fortunes to be made, no special advantages even to be gained, by special skill or integrity. An extravagent, inefficient cook gets as well paid as a capable, economical one, specially among the middle classes, who can not afford to pay for the very best service.

Most people will admit that average servants of late years have deteriorated, partly owing to the fact that they are drawn from an inferior class, and partly because in the terrible march of mind of the last twenty years they have been left behind, their position as a class absolutely ignored ; though their failings are ever before us, nothing bas been done for their improvement. In one respect the middle classes are unfortunate, they have to suffer for the faults of the upper classes ; the kitchen-maid of Belgrave Square becomes very often the cook of a less aristocratic neighborhood, and the waste and extravagance permitted in the kitchen of a rich man are ruinous in the professional man's semi-detached villa, and. the cook gets blamed for what, after all, is only the result of improper training. In short, at the present time servants are either badly trained or not trained at all, and therefore we want a Kitchen College.

In other words, we want a thoroughly organized and recognized center, school, college—the name is immaterial-where servants can study and pass such an examination and gain such a certificate as will be a proof of skill and competence not only in one special department, but of general capacity and respectability ; that qualifications should be given according to merit; and that the institution should be so managed that a woman would feel as proud of a degree from the “College for Domestic Servants” as from any other college open to women. Cooks, house-maids, parlor-maids, and nurses have all welldefined duties, and a competitive examination is the best method of testing their skill. A nurse frequently knows less about children than any other living creature ; she has the haziest ideas about draughts, the most supreme contempt for ventilation, and firmly believes a baby never cries unless it is hungry, and forthwith gives the inevitable bottle, frustrating Nature's efforts to exercise and expand the lungs. A general servant who can cook tolerably and knows a little about housework is the exception; as a rule, she is deplorably ignorant of both. Up to the present a good character has been the only guarantee of efficiency, but it is clear that it is by no means an infallible test ; a servant that one mistress may have thought satisfactory may prove

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quite the reverse to another. But a trained and certificated servant, who knows her work and does it, would be in a position to ignore faultfinding, or, still more satisfactory, not deserve it, she would be less liable to dismissal for imaginary faults, and she would be to a great extent independent of “characters.” As it is, the domestic servant is a sort of shuttlecock tossed from one mistress to another, leaving a different impression on the mind of each. In short, the servant has no standing, no ideal of excellence, no ambition ; her life is monotonous and often sordid in its details, her mental and social condition are both uncared for. Surely this ought not to be, and the wives, mothers, and daughters of England should consider it. We live with our servants as if they were aliens, and then wonder they do not serve us with love and gratitude.

It may be objected that training, general education, and the granting of degrees would make a class already difficult to deal with 'still more so, and that servants would consider themselves the equals of their employers. I think the effect would be just the reverse : a sensible and liberal education would teach women not only what is due to themselves, but what is due to others; and a feeling of independence that the thorough knowledge of his business gives to every worker in every craft would make servants much less suspicious and less resentful. Honest service without servility, cheerful politeness without undue familiarity, cleanliness, economy, and truth, are what we most desire in our domestics; and without education and training how can we reasonably hope to get them ? It may be argued against this college scheme, that the effort made years ago to induce better-class women to enter servitude under the name of "lady-helps " proved a failure. A little reflection would have shown that it could not have proved anything else. The lady-help was an artificial growth, and could not possibly meet a real want. We do not want ladies to become servants, neither their habits nor instincts fit them for the occupation : pride and prejudice, sensitiveness, and I might add ignorance, are bad foundations; but it may not be too Utopian to hope that servants may become more like ladies, or at least that the ignorant, slipshod, sullen “slavey” who works without hope, and idles without enjoyment, may disappear from among us, and that the time is not far distant when a domestic servant can hear herself spoken of as such, if not with honest pride, at least without shame or discontent.

Therefore, we want a Kitchen College for women, not a school of cookery or conglomeration of unorganized “classes,” but a school of everything a servant ought to know ; a school or college with exhibitions and scholarships and diplomas, with clever lecturers, and clear, simple text-books, and fees that will come within the means of women who have to work for their daily bread.

The starting and conducting of such a college ought to be woman's work ; women suffer most from the ministrations of inefficient servants, women benefit most by the attention of good ones; and I have no doubt that there are in England women enough-generous, warmhearted, thoughtful women-to found such an institution ; women enough, from the very highest lady in the land, down to the poorest

other of a family, waited on by a nameless little maid-of-all-work from St. Luke's, to stretch out a helping hand to their sisters in service, and give them what every woman has a right to, the means of improving their social standing.

One word more : Kitchen College must be no charity. To make it a success, it must be as much a national institution as the University of Oxford ; its degrees, certificates, and prizes must be worked for, fought for, and won, by the most deserving, not as an “imperfect favor, but a perfect right."—Nineteenth Century.

WHAT AMERICAN ZOOLOGISTS HAVE DONE FOR

EVOLUTION.*

BY PROFESSOR EDWARD S. MORSE.

II. UNDER

NDER geographical variation many interesting facts have been

added since Professor Baird, Dr. Allen, and Mr. Ridgway published their capital discoveries calling attention to the variations observed in birds and mammals coincident with their latitudinal range. William Bartram, grand-nephew of the famous botanist John Bartram, alludes to the effect of climate in modifying species. In speaking of birds he says, “The different soil and situation of the country may have contributed in some measure in forming and establishing the difference in size and qualities betwixt them.”

Dr. J. A. Allen f shows marked geographical variation among North American mammals in respect to size. He shows that—"1. The maximum physical development of the individual is attained when the conditions of environment are most favorable to the life of the species. 2. The largest species of a group (genus, sub-family, or family, as the case may be) are found when the group to which they severally belong reaches its highest development, or when it has what may be termed its center of distribution. 3. The most typical or most generalized representatives of a group are found also near the center of distribution, outlying forms being generally more or less aberrant or specialized.” In the study of the eggs of birds of the same species, North and South, Dr. Allen shows that in the Soutb the

* Address of the retiring President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, delivered at the New York meeting, August 10, 1887.

7 “Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories.”

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eggs are less in number and smaller in size.* Mr. Robert Ridgway t calls attention to the geographical variation observed in Dendroca.

The same author, f in a discussion of a paper by Salvin in the “Transactions of the Zoological Society of London," on the relationships between the birds of Guadeloupe and the mainland, refers to the present genesis of species, and points to the increase in size of the bill and feet, the shorter tail and wings and darker colors, as characterizing them.

Dr. E. C. Coues,* in his studies regarding geographical variation in color among North American insectivorous mammals, says: "My studies up to the present go to show a very interesting parallelism with the state of the case I have determined for other small mammals, notably the mice and gophers, and which my friend Mr. Allen has admirably brought out in his studies of the squirrels. In some cases I find almost identical effects of climatic or other conditions upon the shrews and the mice of particular localities, by which they both acquire the same facies loci. Present indications are that the normal variability of the shrews in size, shape, and color is not less than has been determined to hold good in various other families of mammals." In this memoir Dr. Coues has verified a curious fact, first pointed out by Professor Baird, of the modifications of the premolar dentition which the Western species collectively, as compared with the Eastern, have undergone : “A striking peculiarity of all the Western species, no matter how diverse in other respects, is to have the third premolar' decidedly smaller than the 'fourth,' while in all the species east of the Rocky Mountains (with one possible exception) the same tooth is as large as, or larger than, the other. Of the fact there is no question; it may be observed in an instant, and is unmistakable. Its significance is another thing. Some of the Western species are scarcely distinguishable if at all from their respective Eastern analogues, except by this character, and they all show it."

Professor A. Hyatt | finds in sponges geographical variation in color, referring to similar features in birds as recorded by Baird and others.

Professor David S. Jordan,4 in a paper on the distribution of freshwater fishes, presents a concise series of propositions which govern these animals in the United States. They all point to the action and importance of physical conditions as governing distribution. Space will permit only the quoting of the last proposition, which is a summing up of his conclusions : “The distribution of fresh-water fishes

*"Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club," vol. I, p. 74. | Ibid., p. 81. 1 Ibid., vol. ii, p. 68. # "Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories," vol. iii, No. 3,

P. 635.

1 "Memoirs of the British Society of Natural History," vol. ii, part iv. A "American Naturalist," vol. xi, p. 607.

is dependent on (a) fresh-water communication ; on (6) character of stream, that is, of water, as to purity, depth, rapidity, vegetable growth, etc. ; on (c) the character of the river-bed, as to size, condition of bottom, etc. ; on (d) climate, as determined by latitude and by elevation above the sea ; and, finally, on (e) various unknown factors arising from the nature or the past history of the species in question, or from the geological history of the rivers.”

Dr. James Lewis * has observed a not unlike condition of things in the distribution of the fresh-water mussels of Ohio and Alabama. By a series of tables he calls attention to what he believes is the occurrence of identical and equivalent species in the two systems of drainage, and suggests that, owing to the number of varieties characterizing the Unionido they may be identical. This author has also studied the genus Io and its habits, and notices its variation coincident with latitude and temperature.

Dr. R. E. C. Stearns,f in a paper on the circumpolar distribution of certain fresh-water mussels and the identity of certain species, unites many hitherto recognized species of Anodonta. Dr. J. G. Cooper,* in a study of the fossil and sub-fossil land-shells of the United States, sees the strongest evidence in support of the idea that the older ones are the direct ancestors of certain forms living to-day.

Mr. R. P. Whitfield || read a paper before the Boston Society of Natural History, showing changes produced in Limnæa megasoma when kept in an aquarium. Having at the outset three specimens, two of them finally died, and from the remaining one eggs were produced, presumably unimpregnated. These eggs hatched, and from these the next year came a second generation, which in turn produced a third generation the following year. The animal of Limnwea is hermaphrodite. Nevertheless, besides diminished size in the shell, it was observed that the male parts had disappeared, and the liver had become considerably reduced in size. He shows that a diæcious species had in a short time become monæcious as a result of the new physical conditions of life in the constricted quarters of an aquarium.

An instructive paper by D. W. D. Hartman, on the genus Partula of the Hawaiian Islands, shows in the most convincing manner the effect of environment in modifying the species. He finds a common occurrence of hybrids among certain forms, the result of the union of proximate species. This hybridization occurring even between arboreal and ground species, Dr. Hartman states that “gravid females are often washed by heavy rains from a favored position to drier levels, where after a few generations the progeny become depauper

*“Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences," 1877, p. 26. + “American Naturalist,” vol. x, p. 321.

“Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences.” # Ibid., vol. i, No. 4, p. 235. I “American Naturalist,” vol. xiv, p. 51,

A Ibid., vol. xvi, p. 581.

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