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caloric are transmitted from the arches to the ground and entirely lost. In CHAPIN's method the heat is conducted in every direction only into the brine. If he could now devise some means to utilize the steam, the economy of caloric would be complete. In the opinion of the writer, steam pipes might be made to replace the two flues in the condensing vat, and fuel employed—but in redoubled amount-only in the graining vat. wait with interest to learn whether Mr. Chapin's process is destined to turn the old potash kettles on their sides.

In the process of boiling in kettles, two firemen and two boilers are required for each block—the firemen relieving each other at intervals of 12 hours, as also the boilers. At some of the works it is in contemplation to let the boiling—which can be done for ten cents a barrel—the company furnishing the fuel. This method, while it would increase the quantity of salt produced, might somewhat endanger its excellence. Under the present arrangement, boilers are paid $1 75 per day, and firemen $1. The wages of an engineer are $1 50 per day, and of common bands $1.

The average diurnal product of a block of sixty kettles is not less than fifty-five barrels a day for the summer season. This, for 180 days, amounts to 9,900 barrels. Supposing that for the other 180 days of the year-allowing a loss of five days—the product is but eighty-two per cent of this amount, we shall have as the annual production of one block, 18,000 barrels, wbich is a diurnal production of 50 barrels for 360 days of the year. This would be the full capacity of one block, where the brine ranges from 78° to 85o.

The total amount of fine salt manufactured in the Saginaw Valley up to the 1st of July of the current year was, as shown by the appended table, nearly 100,000 barrels. At the present time, the number of blocks in actual operation is 22, with an aggregate of 1,187 kettles. Several of these blocks have started within a few days. There are, besides, four or five new blocks just ready to go into operation, to say nothing of the three blocks nearly completed for evaporation, by the Kanawha and Chapin process. If the 22 blocks now in operation succeed in maintaining the standard of productiveness established by the old ones, they are turning out daily 1,210 barrels, which, making an allowance for the check of winter, amounts to 396,000 barrels or 1,980,000 bushels annually. This is not a calculation of what the Saginaw works are expected to do; it is what they are doing at this moment; and shows a growth at the end of two years from the production of the first bushel of salt, equal to that attained by the Onondaga salt works in 1834, at the end of 38 years from the time the salt springs passed under the superintendence of the State. But it is not necessary to pause here. Within thirty days, or by September 1st, not less than four additional blocks will come into operation, raising the daily production to 1,300 barrels, and the annual production to 468,000 barrels or 2,340,000 bushels—a result only reached by the Onondaga salt works less than twentyfive years ago.

It is evident that such an astonishing development of a new branch of local industry could never occur unless it held out the promise of extraordinary remunerativeness. Let us look at this subject. The cost of a suitable lot will vary with its location and extent. Something must also be expended for docks and piers. The following are the other fixed expenditures :

[blocks in formation]

It is believed that this sum covers all expenditures necessary at the present time, for getting one block of kettles into operation. More than this has been expended by many, and perhaps most of the companies now enaged in the manufacture; but mistakes have occurred through inexperience, and many expedients have been tested before the best methods and details have been discovered. But suppose the expense of lot, wharfage, and other items raises the above sum to $9,000. The annual deterioration of this property does not exceed four per cent, or $360—which is two cents per barrel of salt. At Syracuse, experiments have determined that one cord of hard wood will produce fifty-three bushels of salt. This economy in the use of fuel has not been reached as yet, at Saginaw. At the East Saginaw works 6 cords of hard wood are used daily to produce fifty barrels of salt, which is one cord for forty bushels. I am convinced, however, that here is a waste of fuel, due perhaps to a faulty construction of the fues. At Bay City seven cords of wood, in which the soft is to the hard as one to two, produce daily sixty barrels or forty-three bushels to the cord. Taking the facts as they stand, 61 cords of mixed wood at $1 50 per cord produce fifty barrels daily, the year through ; which is one cord for thirtynine bushels. The cost of the fuel for one barrel of salt is, therefore, $0.199. The wages of two firemen and two boilers are $5,50 per day. Add to this the wages of one engineer, (who can do the pumping for four blocks,) and the element of labor entering into the cost of a barrel of salt in the bins is $0.14.

Collecting together now the various elements which enter into the prime cost of a barrel of salt, we have the following exhibit :

Labor of five men in pumping and boiling.
Fuel of mixed quality..
Barrel of superior quality
Packing.....
Deterioration of property.

$0.140

0.199 0.250 0.030 0.020

Total...

$0.639

When salt is selling at $1 50 per barrel, here is a profit of eighty-six cents per barrel, which is 134 per cent on the first cost. This is 95 per cent when the price of salt is $1 25, and 48 per cent when the price of salt is at the cost of manufacture at Syracuse ; so that Syracuse capital

the spot.

would be better employed in buying Saginaw salt than in producing it on

The above estimated profits might be somewhat diminished by expense of superintendence, office rent, hauling the wood up to the blocks, and perhaps some other incidentals. The main result, however, astonishing as it is, cannot be materially affected by controversy. When it is remembered that the cost of a barrel of salt at Syracuse is at least 95 cents, and on the Kanawha 90 cents, the reader will begin to perceive the grounds of an opinion advanced near the commencement of this article.

The only question which remains, and one upon which the predicted growth of the manufacture must depend, is that which respects the quality of Saginaw salt.

There is no corner on which our predictions rest with greater security. The appearance of a pile of Saginaw salt is that of driven snow glistening in the morning sun. The grain is coarse, clean, and angular; the taste purely saline and unexceptionable, and the weight is 584 pounds to the measured bushel. Letters and documents are in the hands of the manufacturers proving that the acceptance of Saginaw salt is such that the market is literally clamorous for an adequate supply. It would occupy too much space to make many citations. The “Mechanics’ Institute, of Chicago," the New York State Agricultural Society, (at Elmira,) and the “ Mechanics’ Association, of Utica,” have severally awarded the salt of the East Saginaw Company their highest testimonials. Harvey WILLIAMS, Esq., one of the oldest and most extensive fish packers on the lakes, certifies : “My experience and observation lead me to the opinion that the salt manufactured by your company is purer, stronger, safer, and more economical for fishermen tban the Syracuse fine salt.” He also names several other parties who bave used the salt for fish packing with the same results. In Detroit, this salt is ranked equal to any, and is very often called for in preference to Syracuse salt. The annual statement of the Trade and Commerce of Toledo, says: “ We are led to the conclusion that eventually all the beef, pork, &c., packed west of Lake Erie, will be laid down in Saginaw salt.” Dow, QUIRK & Co., of Chicago, think Saginaw salt “superior to any that comes to this market.”. Large quantities of this salt are now sold in London, C. W., whence it is distributed through the province. St. Louis and Cincinnati also take large supplies ; and the demand, at all these points, is far more than can be furnished.

I close this article with the following table of such works as are either in operation or nearly ready to go into operation. The values of the various works (with a few exceptions) are ascertained by estimating a site at $1,000; a well at 4,000, and one block at $4,000.

The well No. 7 is not tubed, and the works are not at present in progress. No. 11 has, in addition, one block on a modification of the present Kanawha method. No. 16 bas one block on a modification of the old Kanawba method; and No. 12 has a block on the Chapin method. The East Saginaw Company has two wells, and has expended $8,500 for 520 covers. The Saginaw Valley Compauy has eight covers, and the Bay City Company a small number:

STATISTICS OF THE SALT MANUFACTURE IN THE SAGINAW VALLEY, MICHIGAN.

feet. Depth

No.blocks.

Diam,

No. kettles

in.

56

.

Fine Nono
salt making
made per

Value
Began

to July 1, day. of
Style of Company.
Location of well. When begun.

boiling
bols. bbls. works.

Resident officer.
1. East Saginaw Salt Manufaoturing Co.. East Saginaw, April, 1859,

806 34 July, 1860, 4 200 40,000 200 $33,500 H.C. Potter, M. D., E. Saginaw 2. Carrolton Salt Co...

Carrolton, May, 1860, 759 87 July, 1861,. 1

6,500 50 9,000 J.S. Curtis, M. D., E.Saginaw. 3. Saginaw City Salt M'fg Co......... Saginaw City, Ist Juno, 1860,

8094 May 22, 1861, 2120 12,000 100 13,000 Newell Barnard, Sagin'w City 4. Bay City Salt M'fg Co..

Bay City,
June, 1860,
708 31 Oct. 14, 1861. 3 150 9,500 62 17,000 James Fraser, ......

.Bay City.
5. Portsmouth Salt M'fg Co.,
Portsmouth, July, 1860,

667 4 July 28, 1861, 1 50 7,000 40 9,000
6. J. H. Hill
Opp. East Saginaw, July, 1860
725

3,000 Jas. H. Hill.. East Saginaw.
7. Saginaw Valley Salt M'fg Co.

Carrolton,
January, 1861,

769 July, 1861, 2 120 6,300 80 18,000 E. B. Smith.... East Saginaw.
8. Davis & Co.

Zilwaukie,
September, 1861,

2 120

7,000 William Davis... E, Saginaw.
9. Carrolton Mill Salt Co...

Carrolton,

9th December, 1861, 753 41 June, 1861, 2 116 13,000 110 13,000 John Allison... East Saginaw.
10. Hayden & Co......
Portsmouth, 25th December, 1861, 490 45 July, 1862, 1 55

9,000
11. Forest Valley Salt M'lg Co........ Saginaw City, 1st January, 1862, 830 34 April 1, 1862, 1 60 8,500 13,000 W. D. Leavitt.. Saginaw City.
12. Ann Arbor & Saginaw Salt M'fg Co.. Salina,

10th February, 1862,
806 48

1 58

12,000
13. Rust & Co.

Salina,
25th February, 1862,

5,000
14. Payne & Briggs
East Saginaw, 12th March, 1862,
731

5,000
15. Orange County Salt Co..

Carrolton,
19th March, 1862,
July 17, 1862, 3 150

17,000 Jas. L. Ketcham. E. Saginaw.
16. Wm. C. Gilmore.

Bay City,
March, 1862,
502 31

9,000 Wm. C. Gilmoro... Bay City.
17. E. T. Throop..

Carrolton,
April, 1862,
July, 1862, 2 110

13,000 E. T. Throop ..East Saginaw.
18. D. H. Fitzhugh...
Opp. Portsmouth, 16th May, 1862,

2 100

18,000 F. Fitzhugh...... .Bay City,
19. A. C. Braddock
Portsmouth, May, 1862,
602 31 July, 1862, 2 110

13,000 Jesso Braddock.... Bay City.
20. N. W. Clarke & Co

Bangor,
June, 1862,

5,000 Henry Moore. ..Bay City.
21. Braley & Eaton...
East Saginaw, 7th July, 1862

5,000
22. Van Etten & Mershon
Opp. Portsmouth, July, 1862,

2 100

9,000 28. William Tallman....... Opp. Portsmouth, Supply for Nov., 1862,

1 50

5,000 82 97,800 250,000

780

..

EXCISE TAX.

The following is an official copy of the new Tax Bill with an index. As this measure affects almost every mercantile transaction, we believe we cannot do our subscribers a better service than by giving it to them complete. August 1st is the date set in the bill for the act to take effect, but by a joint resolution, the Secretary is authorized to name any subsequent day not later than the first of October. Notice has been given that the date fixed is the first day of September :

AN ACT TO PROVIDE INTERNAL REVENUE TO

SUPPORT THE GOVERNMENT

AND TO PAY INTEREST ON THE PUBLIC DEBT.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That, for the purpose of superintending the collection of internal duties, stamp duties, licenses, or taxes inposed by this act, or which may be hereafter imposed, and of assessing the same, an office is hereby created in the Treasury Department to be called the office of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue : and the President of the United States is hereby authorized to nominate, and, with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint, a Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with an annual salary of four thousand dollars, who shall be charged, and hereby is charged, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, with preparing all the instructions, regulations, directions, forms, blanks, stamps, and licenses, and distributing the same, or any part thereof, and all other matters pertaining to the assessment and collection of the duties, stamp duties, licenses, and taxes which may be necessary to carry this act into effect, and with the general superintendence of his office, as aforesaid, and shall have authority, and hereby is authorized and required, to provide proper and sufficient stamps or dies for expressing and denoting the several stamp duties, or the amount thereof in the case of percentage duties, imposed by this act, and to alter and renew or replace such stamps from time to time, as occasion shall require; and the Secretary of the Treasury may assign to the office of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue such number of clerks as he may deem necessary, or the exigencies of the public service may require, and the privilege of franking all letters and documents pertaining to the duties of his office, and of receiving free of postage all such letters and documents, is hereby extended to said commissioner.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That, for the purpose of assessing, levying, and collecting the duties or taxes hereinafter prescribed by this act, the President of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized to divide, respectively, the States and Territories of the United States and the District of Columbia into convenient collection districts, and to nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint an as

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