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DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY
DLA's everyday burden of filling 115,000 requisitions, awarding over 13,000 line items, and paying over 7,500 invoices leaves no slack for absorbing the directed manpower reductions. Cutbacks will be necessary in a number of vital areas such as quality control, a subject of direct Congressional interest. The inevitable result will be the entry of more non-conforming products into the DOD inventory which will, in turn, diminish readiness and, possibly, safety. DLA managed parts are used in 1052 weapon systems. Fewer workers will mean more frequent lack of parts that will keep some very expensive aircraft, armored vehicles, and missiles out of service. DLA buys almost all food used by DOD. Shortages in food for both the troops and in the commissaries can be expected.
DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY
The Goldwater-Nichols DoD Reorganization Act would necessarily cause DMA to reorder its priorities by lowering support provided to commanders world-wide. The concrete result would be more cases of outdated or unavailable maps and charts. A lack of digital maps would restrict the operation of several modern weapon systems. A manpower cut would mean that products in some of the areas most likely to become trouble spots will not be produced, thus lowering the ability of the U.S. to respond to many contingencies.
DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY
DNA will not be able to satisfy specific missions including analyses, experiments, and tests necessary to support the Services, Unified Commands, Joint Commands, SDI, Rail Garrison technology, and the On-Site Inspection Agency with reduced manpower.
DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY
A 5 percent reduction in FY 1989 would have several negative results for DSAA's ability to perform its mission. As one example, the Agency would have to cut back on the detailed scrutiny of security assistance funded commercial contracts for evidence of fraud, waste, or abuse. Another effect would be longer processing time for commercial contract invoices. Also slowed would be responses to applications from foreign governments for foreign military sales.
STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE ORGANIZATION
During the current crucial demonstration and validation phase, the directed 5 percent manpower reduction would have the following negative consequences for SDIO.
Inadequate manpower to manage the development of SDI technologies, cost estimates, and schedules for proceeding to the next phase of the acquisition process.
Potential increases in costs and delays in schedules for all SDIO programs, particularly in vital technology integration experiments.
ACTIVITIES IN OTHER DEFENSE AGENCIES AND THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
Any additional manpower cuts in the remaining Defense Agencies and the Office of the Secretary of Defense will lessen effectiveness in completing assigned mission. Below are a few examples of the areas likely to be hurt.
The Office of Economic Adjustment would have to postpone some Congressionally directed scheduled fiscal analyses to help resolve on-base school construction problems.
The Defense Medical Facilities Office will be hampered in planning for the $2.2 billion Defense Medical Military Construction Program. Similar delays and even program terminations will be necessary at the Defense Medical Systems Support Center and the Office of the Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services.
The DoD Office of Dependent Schools would suffer a staff reduction of 661 with very negative effects for student-teacher ratios and programs offered to those with special training needs.
WOMEN IN THE MILITARY
The next question I have is on women in the military. Senator Proxmire and Senator Cohen have introduced a bill, S. 581, which would increase the combat support assignments open to women in the armed services. Specifically, the bill provides for the assignment of women to all units in the Army that have as their mission the direct support of combat units, the assignment of women in the Navy to all combat support vessels, and the assignment of women in the Air Force to duty in reconnaissance, training, or transport aircraft.
In February of this year Secretary Carlucci announced several major policy initiatives that will open more opportunities for women in the military.
Can you outline any of those for us briefly this morning, and also whether these initiatives square with the Proxmire-Cohen legislation?
Mr. GREEN. Sir, we believe the recommendations of the DOD task force on women in the military to include the decisions concerning the services' review of women in noncombat units, and applying the risk rule, do accomplish the full intent of that law. We see no reason for the Proxmire-Cohen legislation. We have opened up about 10,000 additional spaces for women. We have opened up a number of different types of units, combat logistics ships, Air Force Red Horse Squadrons, Aerial Port Squadrons, and Marine Corps security guards. Subsequently, we directed each of the services to go back and take another look using the risk rule. This rule essentially says that women may be excluded from serving in, as defined by the law, any noncombat unit which exposes them to generally the same risk that a person would be exposed to in a combat unit.
The services are due to come back to us within about 60 more days with the results of that analysis. It specifically asks the Army to address battlefield location as one of the criteria.
Senator GLENN. I am amused at some of the interpretations of this. It is supposed to include women not in combat, per se, but yet in combat support roles. In the Navy, for instance, I believe you now have women aboard fleet oilers?
Mr. GREEN. Yes.
Senator GLENN. Back when I was still flying, if you are out against an enemy ship formation, one of your priority targets was supposed to be the oilers and supply ships because if you get them, the rest of the fleet is going to come to a halt pretty quick anyway, and you can pick them off at your leisure later on. So those were priority combat targets back in the old days.
Is that still the case in Navy doctrine? If so, why are women being placed on a prime target?
Admiral EDNEY. The criteria is there, and I think everyone has to recognize and the Nation has to recognize that we are not saying that these women will not be at risk and they will not be targets. The law precludes them, as written, from engaging in combat, and we have defined combat in the Navy as a unit, a squadron or a task organization that seeks out and engages the enemy. For the combat logistics force ships, what we did there was we split out so we got 37 combat logistics force ships—we split out the AOR and
AOE because they are designed to go 27 knots and replenish and engage with the battle group, other ships, and ammunition ships, the AO that only goes 15 knots, and the AFS that goes even slower.
The rationale there was that the battle group commander would not replenish when he is out of bullets. He would bring his ship back, and they would do the replenishment in an area where you had the submarine situation under control and you had the air and surface battle under control.
So using that judgment, everybody should understand, when these ships transit straits, they are going to be targets of submarines. Although their mission is not to engage and seek out the enemy in combat, they are going to be sunk, and women are going to die in the way we are engaging them in the force today.
ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE MILITARY Senator GLENN. Is the study of the role of women in military still being conducted?
The reason I asked is that the last study I believe received which was somewhere in the neighborhood of 3 or 4 years ago-staff correct me if I am wrong-but at that time, we calculated that it was something, if I remember correctly, around 68 percent of the MOS's in the military just across the board were jobs that could be filled just as well by women as by men. Now when you get into the combat role, then it is a little different, such as where you need upper body strength to carry a 70-pound base plate or whatever it was, you then get into other considerations there.
But it was at least two-thirds of the specialties in the services where women could perform every bit as well as men, and I trust that we are continually studying that to see what areas can still be.
Mr. GREEN. Absolutely, and that is part of what the study did, and that is part of what the services are reviewing now. The Air Force, for example, correct me if I am wrong, but I think about 98 percent or so of Air Force skills are open to women. The Marine Corps is the lowest, for obvious reasons, because they are heavily oriented toward the combat skills.
Overall, DOD-wide, I think we are somewhere in the neighborhood of 85 or 87 percent, of skills are open to women.
WOMEN PILOTS Senator GLENN. We are making great progress in these areas, and I hope it will continue. The women obviously have a great interest in that area. They feel the MOS's that are open to them affect their career paths, and it does. There is not any doubt about that.
I had occasion to fly out aboard the Kennedy, off of Norfolk just a couple of months ago with a group going out on a cod flight. We went out of Andrews one morning, and I do not know whether it was done for my benefit or not, but we had a lady pilot who took us aboard and made the tailhook landing that morning. I do not know if that just happened to be luck of the draw or if it was done for my benefit, but either way, I enjoyed it, and she made a good landing, I might also add.
Admiral EDNEY. The quality of our women pilots is extremely high. You might be interested to note, we have the first women commanding officer of a squadron. It will be a VQ, electronic warfare. They are flying the A-7 aircraft out there, and we have our second woman already selected for command of an aircraft squad
Mr. GREEN. One last thing. I think you know Mr. Carlucci well enough to know that he is not going to let the issue of women in the military languish.
AIR FORCE ROTC
Senator GLENN. Air Force ROTC.
General Dillingham, the Air Force has announced the closure of 37 Air Force ROTC detachments. You touched briefly on that in your written statement, I believe.
What criteria are you using to decide which detachments will be closed? What is the delay between graduation and going on active duty for ROTC graduates in the Air Force? What is the need for detachments?
Obviously this is of great importance to colleges and universities that have such programs, when they are taken off campus, and I would ask the others to be prepared to comment on campus officer training programs also.
General DILLINGHAM. Sir, as you have indicated, the Secretary of the Air Force approved the proposal to close 30 Air Force ROTC units and combine seven with other nearby, across-town units. That leaves us with 114 remaining, and many of those locations we selected to close, have Army and/or Navy representation. The criteria used was rather extensive. They looked at both the cost from a sunk cost standpoint, overhead, then they looked beyond that at the other actual costs of training per student. They looked at the third factor, officer production, the actual number, the engineer production was the fourth criteria; minority production was a fifth criteria. Sixth was academic quality overall, and then finally, seventh, undergraduate market size and share.
So each university within this entire spectrum was graded numerically in those seven categories, and then were just ranked ordered. The reduced requirement in the officer accessions has hit, of course, OTS, our Office Training School, was drawn down well below the 1,200 level, to about 975 in the current year, our flexibility for production. The Air Force Academy has not grown. The ROTC production requirement decreased considerably.
So this was an economical effort on the Air Force to get still the top quality graduates with fewer entrance points but yet still having good access.
Your question concerning the delay in getting in, obviously that is changing somewhat, but for our rated pilots and navigators, it is still running about 5 to 7 months, and that has not really changed. We have seen some slight increase in the non-rated line officers coming in up from 6 months to about 8 months. The Air Force has a commitment, and I am sure OSD, to bring these people in within a year's period of time.
Right now we have about 1,150 graduates that are "on our books” who we are interested in bringing in. We are looking at another 2,400 in the May-June graduation time frame, sir.
Senator GLENN. Your officer requirements have gone along on a
General DILLINGHAM. Yes, sir. We have gone down 4,100 positions.
Senator GLENN. Would that be reflected in closing the 37 that I believe you are closing? Does it require that many closures to match that reduction? Is that an approximate match?
General DILLINGHAM. It is not a good total comparison because of our multiple source of commissioning, as I mentioned. That is one factor. That is a reasonable number based on the economics and the cost. Some of these universities, the costs per student were tremendously out of line with others, and it will save us in excess of $10 million a year by closing these 30 universities and consolidating seven others.
Senator GLENN. What percent of your officers come from ROTC units?
General DILLINGHAM. As I say, we were getting approximately 1,000 from OTS, and the Air Force Academy I think is just over 1,000, and ROTC production is about 2,400. So it is over 50 percent.
Senator GLENN. Does anyone else care to comment?
Admiral EDNEY. Yes, sir, in the Navy we have 66 NROTC units. Due to the economic reasons, we are not expanding any, but we are not shutting down any right now. We go through the same process that the Air Force does of measuring the cost per student developed, the quality of the officer, and the likelihood of the officer to make a career or be a productive naval officer. We watch very closely minority accessions and historically black colleges and maintain our presence there.
We have, when we are on the growth years, in the last 6 years, we have gone from 6,000 to 8,000 scholarships. We have walked that back now to 7,200 scholarships, and we are reducing and turning the valve down. We have also set up a procedure where on a routine basis, every 4 to 5 years, we evaluate the productivity of a college. If the individual college is not producing the productivity we need, it gets the message to them that if they do not respond to our requirements, we have got over 30 colleges waiting on a list that desire to join our NROTC program. So we are monitoring those issues. We are not shutting down.
This year we expect to use all of our graduates.
General Ono. For the Army, the ROTC is our primary source of commissioned officers. We are bringing about 8,000 from ROTC each ysar, about 5,000 of them going to the Active component and the balance, 3,000, into the Reserve components, USAR as well as the National Guard. West Point produces about 1,000 per year, and about 500 to 750 officer candidates each year also.