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The facts are these : The fine flour required for labor performed upon wheat meal bread alone white bread exists in the wheat to the extent of than upon white bread alone. No denial is forth70 to 75 per cent. ; 25 or, far more commonly, 30 coming from any quarter which invalidates the per cent. of the strongest nourishment being set inference drawn from the fact that the workingaside for the fattening of pigs and the foddering classes of other countries who live on whole-meal of cattle. In comment on these facts it is loosely breads, and who require no meat at all, compare said, “What does it matter whether we take a favorably with the English bread-feeding class. given kind of nourishment in the form of wheat, No one has been able to point out a diseased state or whether we take it in the form of meat made of human life corresponding with a whole-meal or from animals that have been fed on the wheat ?" wheat-meal-earing section of any community, as
The answer to this is twofold. First, to quote the prevalence of rickets and of crumbly teeth the words of Dr. H. C. Bartlett: “If we saved corresponds with the white bread-eating section. that twenty-five per cent. of nutriment in the 1. As to the feebly uttered objections from the grain which we commonly throw to our cattle, laboratory : In the hitherto almost entire absence not only should we be in pocket ourselves, but we of consistent dietetic experiment, chemists are should save sufficient to pay for one-half the staple obliged to speak in the potential or the subjunctive food consumed by the whole of the paupers of this mood. They consider the question at worst an kingdom. This,'' Dr. Bartlett adds,“ is an impor open one. Meanwhile, no reason is put forward, tant socio-economical consideration." Secondly: | even by chemists, that fairly favors the eating of From our present point of view—that is, concern unreformed, starchy white bread by persons who ing ourselves chiefly with the interests of the poor can get little or nothing but bread to eat. Nor —this turning of wheat into meat, which some are chemists even agreed among themselves in economists seem disposed to admire, is further looking coldly upon the especial line reform wasteful, because it is a roundabout and costly has taken in the recent efforts at bread reformaway of achieving an end near at hand. Meat is tion; while physiologists are unanimous in their expensive, to begin with. It wastes enormously in approval alike of those efforts and their direction. cooking. It contains a very large percentage of Against the few scientific voices raised in hymere water, for which one pays in buying it. pothetical dissent are heard the firmer tones of Sometimes, too, cattle are a dead loss through our most eminent chemists and physiologists, cordisease. And, even setting aside all these con dially advocating the introduction of wheat-meal siderations, the fact remains that the poorest bread, made as the reformers aim at making it. classes, for whom and for whose children we Professor Huxley has lately given his assent to the chiefly desire to see the adoption of wheat-meal principles of the L'ague. Professor Frankland, bread, are precisely the classes who ultimately | Professor Ray Lankester, Dr. W. B. Carpenter, derive none of this compensating nourishment Professor Church, Sir Thomas Watson, Professor from the animals fed on the wheat they lose. Erasmus Wilson, and Dr. Pavey may also be
To sum up: The Bread-Reform League has been named as among its warm supporters. instituted, and its operations are conducted, mainly 2. We have seen that, in order to prevail upon with a view to providing the classes who live the needy classes to make experiment of this bread, chiefly on bread with a more nutritive kind of food even when brought within easy and general reach, than they can at present obtain. The reformers a prejudice has to be overcome, founded partly maintain, and facts of various orders bear them on the actual objections to common brown bread, out in maintaining, that such an article of diet as and on the practical identification in the public is required to render children of the poor stronger mind of wheat-meal bread with other breads of a and better able to cope with the difficulties of similar color. There being no sound dietetic their existence is found in wheat-meal bread reasons for the popularity of white bread, example made of the decorticated and finely ground whole may be brought to bear in the overcoming of this grain. They declare that such bread contains a prejudice. One thing is certain. No such forces larger number of nutrients, and these in whole were at work in the original adoption of white somer proportions, than white bread does; and bread as a general article of food among English that more hardship can be sustained and more poor as are now at work to get rid of it as such.
Neither a scientific nor a philanthropic impulse of this kind. There must be an array of facts caused the crowding out of the old-fashioned meal derived from persevering and intelligent experiby white flour. People liked the “look and taste" ment, and it is maintained that as yet the bread of white bread ; if they could get plenty of milk, experiment has not been, in England, sufficiently meat, and eggs, they missed nothing by its adop- tried. tion; and be it remembered that milk and meat I have refrained from giving any of the detailed were much less expensive then than they are now. chemical analyses of wheat; and this on two acSuch people as did miss anything of health or counts. The results of analysis are very variously vitality through being unable even then to afford given. Added to which, being myself no chemmeat and milk, were yet ignorant as to what it ist, my selection of an authority would be without was they missed, and as to how cheaply to supply significance. One point seems, nevertheless, bethe need. In our day, not only has the use of yond question. The whole-meal of the wheat white bread become among all classes a rooted contains one hundred and nineteen grains in the habit to which the palate gives allegiance, but pound of the mineral matters valuable as nourishthere is the argument of laziness : “We like very ment, while a pound of white flour contains only well what we have got, and it saves trouble to go forty-nine grains. The testimony of chemical on as we are." A present preference always analysis must, however, not be taken by itself, coaxes the judgment to find it in the right. Taste apart from the observed physiological results in and habit, however, appear in this case to be alike the cases of populations respectively fed on bread in the wrong, and the duty is urged upon us of of this kind or of that. acquiring a new preference and of creating a new If the personal testimony of a “social unit” be fashion by the persevering trial of a new kind of of any value whatever, I may say that I find bread.
wheat-meal bread both wholesome and palatable, 3. Lastly, as to the economists' argument, that and that since I have taken it I find it possible by giving our rejected bran to cattle it is elab- comfortably to dispense with meat more than orated into a superior human food, we have seen, once in the day. I began the use of the bread on first, that meat is dear, and is subject to disease, the mere ground of giving a struggling reform and so that not all the food thus elaborated fair personal trial; and I continue it on grounds reaches human eaters after all, while next to none of acquired preference. of it reaches the class for whom specially we here The present organized attempt at bread-reforconcern ourselves. Secondly, that so to argue is mation must, like all other agitation movements, like telling a rich man to pay money in traveling prove its fitness to meet an existing requirement fare, in order to go fifty miles around instead of by survival until its task be completed. If rapid five miles across; which proceeding, though on growth be any test of vigor and vitality, we may various accounts it may be worth the rich man's augur well for the future of its cause ; for, one while, does not help the poor man to reach his year ago it had no existence except in the condestination at all, but, on the contrary, condemns sciousness and conscience of Miss Yates and a him to stay where he is.
few of her friends; whereas now it is a busy The whole matter discussed in this paper is a and recognized body of activity, having secured practical and perhaps a very prosy one. Yet, for the adherence of numerous leading millers and those who believe in health as one of the chiefest bakers, who are willing to forward its aim by props both of virtue and of gladness, the putting grinding the meal and by selling the bread it of as stout a staff of health in the hand of the reccommends. poor man as may be seems no trifling object to A writer in the Corn-Trade Journal remarks aim at. Sanitary arrangements in general are that it was not by mere agitation, by conferences better in English cities than elsewhere, yet the and article-writing, that white bread obtained its poor of our alleys are sicklier than those of cities firm footing in the public favor, but that comwhere, with even less regard paid to the purifica- mercial enterprise mainly effected its adoption ; tion of air and water, richer breads are in common and he suggests that to the same agency the re
growth mal until its tas
y be worth the
formers should look for the general introduction Argument alone will not settle a practical point of the rival bread.
THE CHARMS OF MUSIC.
By Archie A. Du Bois.
Music is undoubtedly the most ancient of arts. hard wood, it must have been crude indeed ; yet For its origin we need look no further than the the germ of greater things was there; the power human soul, of which it is a part, and over which was there—the power of harmony to entrance and it exercises a strange influence, causing it to weep agitate. at pathetic strains, or spring into vigorous action. To define the invisible power of music over at the sound of a martial air. What will move a human emotions is beyond the scope of language. Frenchman more quickly than the “ Marseillaise That such a power does exist, no one will deny. Hymn"'? What will stir American blood to more Before it all the baser passions of our nature take rapid pulsation than the “Star-Spangled Banner?" flight, and by it our nobler and purer natures are And when we enter the sanctuary, carrying with us drawn out. many thoughts of worldly things, how the organ's I remember once, when a boy, I entered a glorious harmony dispels them and fixes our minds church during Communion service. The organ, upon noble and worthier themes !
under the control of a master hand, was rolling Every creature to a greater or less degree is forth that grand old tune “Windham" in its affected by music; and—unlike other arts—the art minor key. The choir was not singing, but I of music, in its first stage, does not have to be could hear the words as plainly as if spoken: acquired, but springs spontaneously from the heart.
“'Twas on that dark, that doleful night.” It is proficiency that has to be acquired, not the art itself. The birds need no singing-master to I was not religiously inclined, yet the harmony of teach them song, but warble forth their sweet that tune overcame me with an indefinable awe strains because their beings overflow with melody. which I could not shake off at the time, and I The nude savage whirls his painted body about recall the feeling quite distinctly even now. the glowing flame, and sings, as nature alone The mind may be distressed by trouble, but a taught him, a wild refrain, to stir his soul for calm and peaceful rest will steal over the agitated war; and when the battle is over, a weird and spirit as the low sweet strains of a melody strike melancholy dirge peals from his lips for comrades upon the ear; and at no other time than such as that have fallen.
this does our purer self commune so unrestrainedly And this same savage has no doubt a musical with the Author of its being. This perfect sway instrument-a tom-tom, or something of the kind; over human emotions may not be so general or so rude, perhaps, but still a musical instrument- noticeable with solemn as with lively music. While showing that its owner possesses a well-spring of the former may affect many persons, the rendering music in his inmost being; and, as with us, of a vivacious piece will affect all, and draw a music forms a part in all his festivities and finds response from every nerve and fibre of their its place in his religious exercises.
beings. Instinctively we move our bodies to the Jubal, a grandson of the murderous Cain, is measure of a lively tune, our pulses throbbing in the first musician on record, and to him is accred- unison. ited the invention of the harp. This first of The circle of this powerful influence is not conmusical instruments, could we but see its primi- fined to mankind alone; it also extends to the tive proportions, would no doubt be a curious lower animals. Horses, it is known, have been thing to look upon; as it is, one can scarcely strangely affected by piano-playing, indicating, in imagine its possible shape or construction. many unmistakable ways, their delight; and the
Compared with the great Centennial organ, or snake-charmer's principal instrument is the sweetother such inventions of late date, this first harp toned whistle he makes from a reed. would be as the acorn is to the stately oak. Made Of late days music has become so common that in an age when science and mechanics were un- scarcely a household in the land is without an known, perhaps fashioned with a knife of stone or inmate tolerably proficient upon some instrument, or as a vocalist. Music is with us at every turn home artists—all tending to elevate the morals, ing-point in our lives. As a child we are furnished while life is rendered brighter and more enjoyable with a penny whistle for a plaything. This is the thereby. first stage. Then, as we grow up, we learn to While such things cement more firmly the know the organ-grinder with his monkey in its family ties and add greater attractions to an suit of dirty red. This is still the infant stage of already attractive home, they may be obtained musical knowledge; but in a few years we enter with but little expense, as musical instruments can society and find it is a source of refined amuse be purchased on easy terms. The expense of ment everywhere. We attend church and discover tuition is the greatest one to be incurred. It is that here our Creator is worshiped in song. We true, instructors abound whose prices suit an immarry, and at the altar listen to the strains of poverished purse, but as a rule their knowledge and Mendelsohn's “Wedding March.” Music leads our capability of imparting what they know are proarmies to the battle-field, it is present at our social portionately limited. It would be preferable, howgatherings, and then, when we come to lay down ever, for the prospective performer to secure a good the burdens of life, the last sad rites are performed instruction book and puzzle the matter out by to the Dead March in “Saul." So, from first to himself than to employ such a cheap John whose lait, from cradle to the grave, music constitutes only recommendation is cheapness and whose an important feature in our existence—appealing teachings prove more harmful than beneficial. to the true self-all the elevated sentiment within Under such instructors-generally careless except us.
in the matter of their paltry pay—the pupil oftener Shakspeare says:
acquires erroneous ideas and confirmed habits ex“ The man that hath no music in himself
tremely difficult to eradicate. Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds
| A good teacher is therefore essential, if you Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils;
have one at all, and to secure the services of such, The motions of his spout are dull as night, a good price must be paid. In selecting such an And his affections dark as Erebus.
one, choose one who has turned out a number of Let no such man be trusted.”
proficient scholars—the best test. And do not - Merchant of Venice.
fall into the common error of thinking that a brilWe can easily believe this to be a fact. The man liant performer must also possess the talent of over whom harmony exercises no influence, but instructing others. This is by no means invariably falls powerless,—whose soul does not respond to the case. melody,-must indeed be scarcely human, a man To those who are lovers of good music, as well of low instincts and vicious character. On the as to those who make some pretensions to instruother hand, he who has a love for the art, profligate mental performances, we would add a few words though he may be, is not all bad; he must possess more. No music is so well appreciated as that which many good qualities.
is well executed, and, in order to execute music as It is well for parents to encourage their children it should be executed, the amateur should ever bear to become musicians. Nothing will appeal so l in mind the fact that practice, constant practice, strongly to their nobler natures as music, nothing is essential. One of the most eminent musical promotes refinement so successfully. If they mani- performers that ever lived once remarked “that fest a fondness for it, let them have instruction constant practice daily, for a life-time, would not upon some instrument. To perform creditably make a perfect player." It is not to be supposed, upon any one of the many musical instruments is however, that all can become professionals; still, a desirable accomplishment, and one which the the accomplishment may be cultivated to an extent possessor will soon discover to be a source of which will enable the performer to execute his much gratification and pleasure not only to him- music to the full gratification of his hearers and self, but to his friends.
and with credit to himself. No time passes by so pleasantly or leaves so For the benefit of the music readers of the many agreeable memories as the hour spent at the MONTHLY, we furnish a new piece of music, from organ or the piano. Delightful musical parties the hands of a very popular composer, which they may also be arranged and conducted by these will find both excellent and sui generis quite apropos.