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unsettled condition of the States. The law pro As the sexes are kept apart, marriages are neceeds to order that the mass-priest be present to gotiated by a near relative of the man, or by a consecrate the union with the divine blessing to woman whose trade it is. A girl under age may every happiness and prosperity.
be married by her parents without her consent; The Greek historian Procopius tells a story of otherwise she may choose her husband, or appoint an Anglo-Saxon heroine which will bear repeat- a wekeel to arrange her marriage. Previous to ing. It evidences spirit, if not delicacy. She was the nuptial contract, the amount of dowry, which betrothed to the King of the Varni, a German is indispensable, is decided, and two-thirds paid, tribe touching the ocean and the Rhine ; but the the remainder being reserved for the wife in case lover was tempted by policy to prefer his father's of her husband's death, or of divorce without her widow, sister to the King of the Franks. The consent. At an early day after this the wekeel forsaken Angles princess, instead of bewailing her and the bridegroom sit on the ground, face to disgrace, avenged it. Her warlike subjects are face, each with one knee on the earth, the right said to have been ignorant of the use of a horse, hands joined, the thumbs raised and pressed and even of its form ; but she boldly sailed to the against each other. A fikee, or schoolmaster, is mouth of the Rhine with four hundred ships and present to instruct the parties what to say. Plaa hundred thousand men. After the loss of a cing a handkerchief over their joined hands, he battle, the captive king implored the mercy of his pronounces a prayer or exhortation, with quotavictorious bride, who pardoned his offense, dis tions from the Koran on the excellency of marmissed her rival, and compelled him to discharge riage. The wekeel then says after the fikee, “I with honor the duties of a husband.
betroth to thee this adult virgin for a dowry This gallant exploit, an English historian sug- | of- " The bridegroom replies, “ I accept her gests, was probably the last naval enterprise of betrothal, take her under my care, and bind the Anglo-Saxons. The arts of navigation by myself to afford her protection, and ye who are which they acquired the Empire of Britain and present bear witness to this." Three times is this the sea were neglected, and thus were renounced form repeated, when a blessing is spoken, and all the commercial advantages of their insular situa- the company partake of sherbet and sometimes of tion.
dinner. Each is presented by the groom with an The Greek Chalcondyles, not to mention his embroidered kerchief, provided by the bride's errors in the geography of England, thus blunders family. The fikee receives a similar present from concerning Anglo-Saxon manners and customs: the husband, with a gold coin tied in it.
“ The most singular circumstance is their disre- The man waits ten days for his bride, keeping gard of conjugal honor and female chastity. In himself in her thoughts by presents. Meanwhile, their mutual visits, as the first act of hospitality, her dress and household furniture are being prethe guest is welcomed in the embraces of their pared, an immense canopied chair, among other wives and daughters; among friends they are lent things, to hold the turban, which, when placed and borrowed without shame; nor are the islanders thereon, is covered by a silk kerchief ornamented offended at this strange commerce and its inev- with gold thread. One of these chairs is someitable consequences.”
times sent to the husband also. The English fashion of kissing strangers was For four nights preceding “the night of the noticed by Erasmus, but it did not scandalize entrance," or that on which the husband receives him. In the language of an English writer, his bride, the quarter about his residence is illu“The credulity and injustice of the Greek histo- minated by chandeliers depending from silk cords rian should teach us to distrust accounts of remote drawn across the street and ornamented by partinations, and to suspend our belief of every tale colored flags of red and green. On each night that deviates from the laws of nature and the an entertainment is given by the groom, the guests character of man."
contributing the refreshments. From Burckhardt's - Arabic Proverbs" and If the families are wealthy, the matrimonial Lane's “Modern Egyptians” has been con- agent, the midwife, the bride's nurse, and her densed the following account of marriage rites bath-attendant are presented each with a piece of in Egypt:
gold stuff or a Cashmere shawl. Placing these Vol. XVII.—28
over the left shoulder, and attaching the edges an incision in his abdomen, drew out a large portogether on the left side, these women, mounted tion of his intestines, and carried it on a silver on asses, with men beating kettle-drums before tray before the procession. This recherche enterthem, or in the absence of these, themselves utter- tainment cost the youth a long sickness. ing shrill, quavering cries of joy, go to the bride's Before sunset, the bridegroom goes to the bath, friends, and invite them to accompany her to and and changes his garments. Then, attended by from the bath, and to partake of the entertain- friends, musicians, etc., he repairs to a mosque ment to be given on the occasion. The digestion for prayer. He wears a kuftan with red stripes, of these females must be remarkable, for at each and a like-colored Cashmere shawl and turban, house they partake of a repast, having previously and walks between two friends in similar attire. given notice of their intended visit.
The procession returns with order and display. The bride goes in state to the bath which has There are numerous attendants carrying meshals, been hired for her, unless she owns one. She is or torches, and borne by two of them is a hangattended by her friends, a company of virgins ing frame of sixty small lamps, in four circles, the wearing white shawls, by musicians, hautboys, upper one revolving. etc., in procession. Men head the party, carry- Through the brilliant street the party advances ing round trays, covered with kerchiefs, on which in the form of an oblong ring, all facing the are linen, utensils to be used in bath, a silver interior of the ring and each, except the bridebottle of rose-water, and a perfuming vessel of groom and the two friends on his either side, silver with burning aloes. The bride walks in the bearing a sprig of henna. At frequent intervals procession under a yellow or rose-colored silken the party halts, while one sings an epithalamium. canopy open in front, and borne by four men, a At his home he leaves his friends below with pole, with a kerchief at the top, being at each pipes, coffee, and sherbet, while he goes to the corner. Her dress and jewels are concealed by a bride's room above, where she sits covered with a red Cashmere shawl, falling from a small paste shawl. Before removing this, he makes her a present board crown. In warm weather a woman walks of money called “the price of the uncovering of backward before her, ceaselessly waving a huge the face.” With the words, “In the name of God, fan of black ostrich feathers.
the compassionate and merciful,” he removes the The procession, leaving the house, moves to the shawl and sees her face for the first time. If disright at a slow pace, and pursues a winding route appointed in her, he seldom disgraces and divorces for the sake of display. Hours are spent at the her immediately, but retains her a few days. bath in washing, sporting, and in feasting at the “The night be blessed !” he says. She responds, bridegroom's expense. Returning from bath, the “God bless thee !" He then calls to the women bride and her friends sup together. Then a large assembled at the door in anxious suspense, to proquantity of henna is made into a paste, and the claim his satisfaction with his bride. One after bride, with a lamp in her hand, takes up a con- another takes up the joyful cry till the neighbortribution, each guest sticking a gold coin in the hood and the community at large are informed of lump. When this is filled, it is scraped off into a the result. basin of water. Other henna is applied to her One might presume that a knot tied with forhands and feet, these are bound in linen till the malities so complicated and pretentious would be next morning, when they are of a deep orange enduring; that, after the pomp and painstaking of tint. The guests also dye their hands and feet. a wedding, a man would be chagrined at having
On this, “the night of the henna,” the bride. to put away his wife. But divorces are almost as groom gives his chief entertainment. The next common in Egypt as marriages. There is absoday the bride, in another more inagnificent pro- lutely nothing to prevent a man on the slightest cession, goes to the husband's house. Any one pretext-indeed, without any pretext—from saying who can perform a feat, amusing, monstrous, or to his wise, “You are divorced," when, if he extraordinary, is sure to be welcome in the pro- wills it, she must return to her friends. cession. Peasants cudgel each other, swordsmen | There is scarcely a man in Cairo, it is stated, engage in mock combat, a man runs a sword who has not, unless recently married, divorced a through his body. On one occasion a youth made wife, and many have, in ten years, had over thirty
consorts; and women, yet young, have been wives utter a loud word, at least while young, and poets to a dozen men successively. Some men marry a are not used to inditing sonnets to the cracked new wife each month. This reminds us of the voices of old ladies. A group of elderly Armenian poet Martial's ten husbands in a month, a story women, it is said, almost deafen with their chatter, more difficult of credit than Jerome's, who claims notwithstanding their mufflers. There would be to have seen at Rome a triumphant husband bury poetic justice in their talking their tyrant hushis twenty-first wife, she having interred twenty- / bands deaf, when the fetters were finally taken two of his less sturdy predecessors.
from their speech. (Is talkativeness in woman The light in which widows are viewed in differ- really so offensive to man? In China he makes it ent nations, might be an interesting study. All a ground of divorce.) of Mahomet's wives, except Ayesha, were widows. Turning to modern European nations, we find In China a woman's second marriage is disrepu- at Saardam, Holland, a custom of announcing table, and is often punished. Some nations require marriages and deaths by windmills. These, by a widow to be buried alive with her husband's the way, originated in the dry country of Asia corpse ; others, to yield her life on his funeral Minor, and were introduced in Normandy as early pile. Though we should consider a widow—who as 1105. At death, the sails of all the family has presumably attained wisdom and discretion- | mills are made to stand still. On a wedding occafitted to be mistress of a parsonage, the union of a sion, the relatives of the pair decorate the sails Jewish high-priest with one was interdicted. The with ribbons and garlands, fixing crowns on the Armenian priest can marry but once; the primi. points, and set them in motion with gay and fantive monks censured a third marriage as legal for- | tastic effect. nication, while a fourth was an unknown scandal. In Switzerland a marked social feature is the Nicholas, the Patriarch of Constantinople, in spite Saturday-night visiting, the prolific season for of bribes and punishments, persisted in opposing love-making. A youth, desiring a lady's acquaintthe fourth marriage of Leo, the philosopher. ance, introduces himself by appearing under her
A widow's wedding in Egypt is not considered window and making his petition, which is drawn worth the formalities attending a first marriage. up in regular form, usually in verse and committed The man need only say to the woman, “I take to memory. His petition being granted, he climbs thee for my wife." His divorced wife he can to her window, usually on the third floor. There appropriate again without any formality whatever, is no risk to limb, as the houses are constructed even after a second divorce; but after a third she with conveniences for this novel manner of courtcannot return to him, unless she has, in the mean- ship. Sitting on the window, he is regaled with time, been the wife of another. One wishing to ginger-bread and cherry-bounce. If his views are restore a thrice-divorced wife can satisfy the law serious and he acceptable, he-think of it-enters by hiring a man to marry and immediately divorce her room and the conversation continues, perhaps, the ex-wife. He often employs a slave for this till early dawn. But he has often to pay for his purpose, the more hideous the better. When this night's pleasure by having to maintain a bath, on instrument has been married to the ex-wife, his his return home, by some waylaying and lessmaster the next morning presents the slave to her, favored rival. which act dissolves the connubial union, for the | Among remarkable wedding occasions is that of marriage of a woman with her slave is prohibited Tamerlane's six grandsons, in whose nuptials was by statute.
revived the pomp of the ancient Caliphs. The Of illiberality toward woman, the mind of man rites were celebrated in gardens, spotted with has ever shown itself tenacious. The Armenians, countless tents and pavilions, displaying the wealth though holding many enlightened views, being of Samarcand and the spoils of a conqueror. Christians of the Eutychian sect, make woman Forests were cut down to supply fuel for the the servant of man. She is muzzled with an enor- kitchens; the plain was spread with pyramids of mous muffler on the lower face to the nose, while meat and vases of liquor, to which guests by the a white cloth over the forehead flows down the thousand were invited; the orders of the State, back. Their poets have not woman's voice as a the nations of the earth, including European amtheme of inspiration, for she is never heard to bassadors, were marshaled at the royal banquet. The populace joined in the illuminations and mas- pavilion was erected on a plain near the city. It querades; the trades passed in review, each emu- rested on pillars sixty feet high, glittering with lous to show some quaint device or marvelous gold and precious stones, and was hung and pageant of its peculiar materials. Shops were spread with the richest tissues. Adjoining the erected, furnished with whatever was rare; amphi- building were a hundred chambers, gorgeously theatres, covered with Persian carpets and bro- | furnished, while for the reception of the ten cades, were filled with dancers and musicians. thousand bridegrooms an outer court was enEvery trader was in suitable disguise, and exhibited closed and hung with costly tapestry. In the the attributes of his profession. Butchers wore foreground without, tables were spread for the the skins of beasts; furriers appeared as lions, immense multitude of guests. leopards, etc. ; upholsterers as painted calicoes; ! The nuptials were solemnized in accordance the cotton-workers as a lofty minaret; saddlers as with Persian custonis. A separate seat was asletters; the fruit-sellers as portable gardens, signed to each pair-all being arranged in a semiabounding with nuts and fruits. There was circle on either side of the royal throne. Each scarcely an animal that was not imitated by bridegroom had received a golden vessel for his machinery.
libation, and when the last of these had been When the marriage contracts had been ratified announced by trumpets to the multitude without, by the cadis, the couples retired to their nuptial | the brides entered the banquet-hall and took chambers. Nine times, by Asiatic usage, they their places. The king first gave his hand to were dressed, and at each change of apparel Statira, saluting her as his wife. The other pearls and rubies were showered on their heads, bridegrooms followed bis example. Music, draand abandoned to the attendants. A general in-matic performances, feats of jugglery, marked the dulgence was proclaimed; every law was relaxed ; five festival days which followed. Magnificent every pleasure allowed. The emperor's procla. offerings poured in from all parts of the empire. mation went forth : “This is the season of feasts, The value of the crowns Alexander received was of pleasure, and of rejoicing. No one is allowed estimated at fifteen thousand talents. to dispute or reprimand. Let not the rich exult There are at hand some curious marriage staover the poor, nor the powerful over the weak. tistics which might prove interesting reading, but Let no one ask his neighber, "Why hast thou their quotation would unduly prolong this paper. acted thus ?'"
Some of these figures ought to alarm Shakers, The festival continued two months; the people monks, and bachelors, for their pointings are that were free; the sovereign was idle; and, continues celibacy is unfavorable to longevity. To this a the historian, after devoting fifty years to the waggish bachelor replies, that to each person is attainment of empire, the only happy period of allotted a certain amount of happiness, and that his life was, probably, these two months when he married people must live a longer life to secure suspended the exercise of his power.
their share. But perhaps the most remarkable marriage of A plea for the element of love in marriage history occurred at Suza, during its occupation entered the original design of this article. The by Alexander. Desiring to unite victor and van writer is so old-fashioned as to believe that love quished by the strongest of all alliances, and to is the only basis for a right union between man form a new people, destitute alike of Persian and and woman. But it is no matter, perhaps, if the Macedonian prejudices, Alexander decreed a wed- plea be unsaid ; for, though the tongues of angels ding festival, to celebrate at once his nuptials should protest, men and women would go on with Statira, daughter of Darius, the union of one marrying for wealth, for convenience, for position, hundred of his principal officers with Persian and and for reasons as foreign to any right reason as Medean ladies of the noblest families, and that of that which moves the Libyan youth, who, accordten thousand private Macedonian soldiers with ing to Jean Paul, marries the girl among his Asiatic women. The gold of Asia and the arts guests who laughs at his jokes. of Greece united to celebrate the occasion. For | “Though,” in the language of an American the accommodation of the numerous bridal party, humorist, “marryin' for love may be risky, it's and the vaster multitude of guests, a magnificent so honest that God can't help smilin' at it."
The Dean of Westminster was a great Church- who hold that “the deil and the dean begin wi' man in that wider and higher sense which over- ae letter," forgot their rigidities in his genial looks the barriers that divide one communion presence. from another. We should hardly exaggerate if On the continent, in all societies, from that of we said that when he died, Dean Stanley stood the Papal court to the modest home of the Prothigher in the respect and affection of a larger and estant “pasteur"—from the palaces of Petersmore varied circle of members of many churches burg or Berlin to the quiet library of Dölllingerthan any other ecclesiastic in the world. By all among Roman Catholics, Old Catholics, Lutherin his own Church, at home and abroad, except a ans, and Reformed, his great position, his manyfew standing at two opposite extremes of fanatical sided affinities, his social charm and grace, his intolerance, he was held in esteem and honor. intellectual eminence, won for him a universal The English Nonconformists recognized in him a welcome. In this country all churches and classes friend, who understood their position, and sym- received him with open arms. pathized with their best traditions. In Scotland “The Dean of Society," he was sometimes his name was a household word; and even the called, by people whose outlook does not range ultra-Calvinists, who could not find the “ root of beyond the smoke of London ; but on many sothe matter” in him, and the ultra-Presbyterians, cieties which had scarce any other link to that