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eyclopædia Metropolitana,' 197; Partington's in Australia or New Zealand, 163, 164; a British
British Encyclopædia,' ib.; Knight's English colony in Hindostan impossible, 164; increased
Encyclopædia,' ib. (See Knight.), Annuaire En- value of European life in India, ib. ; effect of the
cyclopédique,' 200; Chinese encyclopædias, 201. power of purchasing land in fee simple, ib.; pros-

pects of English settlers as landowners, 164, 165;
Dalrymple (Colonel) at the battle of the

Alma, 298. Chittagong, Sumbulpore, and the Sunderbunde,
Davidson's Introduction to the Old Testament,' Indians of North and South America, contrast be-

as districts for European settlers, 166.
220; his amenities, 222. See Colenso.'
Demetrius, the Russian Pretender, success and sui- tween, 16.
cide of, 238.

Indigo trade, revolutions in, 150.

Institutes for working men, 18; history of Mecha-
Earthquakes, Peruvian, 13.

nics' Institutes, 19; no longer institutions for me-
Ellicott's Commentary on the Epistles,' 49; charac-

chanics, 20; skilled workmen will not fuse with
ter of his notes, 51, 52.

rough labourers, ib.; adults should not be mixed
Emperor (French), Mr. Kinglake on his personal with youths in classes, 21; toleration must be
courage, 274.

accorded to emoking, ib.; mental ealibre of work.
Encyclopédie of Diderot and D'Alembert, 184; its men overrated, ib. ; abstractions unintelligible to
distinguishing feature the encyclopædia of scep-

the uneducated, 22; remarks on the style and
tics, 187.

delivery of lectures, ib.; causes of failure, 23;
Ersch and Grüber's Encyclopædia, 192.

value of anecdotes, ib.; proper subjects for lec-

tures, ib. ; ' Working Men's Educational Union,'
Female Life in Prison,' 83.

ib.; suggestions for the library, 25; reading-room,
Furetière's (Abbé) Dictionary, 185.

26; evening classes, ib.; examinations of the So-

ciety of Arts, ib. ; village libraries and reading.

rooms, 27; Bible-class, 28; in whom the manage-
Gladstone's (Mr.) support of an anti-Church admi.

ment should be vested, ib.; eauses of the decay
nistration, 136, 137; crusade against indirect tax-

of such institutions, 30.
ation, 146.

Ionian Islands, sacrifice of the, 143; England's em-
Goldsmith's project of a cyclopædia in conjunction pire narrowed by their cession, 144; remarks on
with Johnson, Burke, and Reynolds, 187.

cession of territory without parliamentary sanc-
Gordon's (Mrs.) Life of Professor Wilson,' 108; tion, 144, 145.
unjust attack on Mr. Lockhart, 117.

Italian unity, impediments to, 139; resistance of
Gothic styles, variety of, 99.

the Pope, ib.; of the Emperor, 140.
Greek styles, Aristotle's distinction of two, 56.
Testament, importance of its study, 50; nei-

ther English version nor original text infallible, Jardine (Professor), description of, 110.
ib.; dubiousness one thing, indistinctness another, Jeffrey's (F.) letters to Professor Wilson, 113–115.
ib. ; Bentley's opinion on the various readings,

51,; what constitutes the great difficulty of Kensington (South) Museum and Loan Exhibition,
the Testament, 51, 52; question of uncial and

91; accidental communication of vitality to the
cursive texts, 53; extravagancies of German

Museum, 92; Mr. Robinson's share in its creation,
commentators, ib.; importance of grammatical 93; collections of medieval curiosities, 94; an
details, 55; the cipouton défis distinguished from
the ovverpaupévn, 56, 57; style of the Greek

epitome of art history for 1500 years, 96; sum-
Testament, 57; written for persons already in-

mary of the collections, ib.; symbols of French
structed in Divine truth, ib.; the Word formed

and English manners of the 18th century, 98;
to stimulate thought and provoke inquiry, 58;

iron chair of Ruker, ib. ; sudden change from the
force of the Greek article, 60; acos with and

art of the middle ages to that of the Renaissance,
without the article ib. ; υιός, ib. ; πνεύμα, κύριος

99; variety of styles termed Gothic, ib. ; imper-
and xpiarós, ib.; graphic effect of the article, 61;

fect knowledge of the resources of mediæval art,
Granville Sharpe's rule,' 62; precision in the

100; description of remarkable classes and arti.

cles in the collection, 100, 101; questions as to
employment of pronominal infections, 63; sig-
nification of the cases the great problem of Greek,

the practical value of the Loan Exhibition, 102;
64; wonderful machinery of the Greek tenses, 65;

advantages of such exhibitions, 103; effect on the
Oratio obliqua, ib.; peculiar use of the aorist

study and appreciation of artistic styles, 104;
and other tenses, 66, 67; moods, 67; precision in

argument for disconnecting the School and the
the use of the prepositions, ib.; illustrations, 68,

Collection, 105, 106; merits of the Catalogue of

the Loan Exhibition, 106; general gratification
69; conjunctions and particles, 69, 70; their signifi-
cations, 70; Greek inflections lost in English, 71. Kinglake's Crimea,? 268; the style laboured and

afforded by it, 107.

artificial, ib.; Louis Napoleon represented as the
Harris's Lexicon Technicum, 184; his death in

cause of the war, 269; fancy portrait of Lord Strat-
poverty, 185.

ford de Redeliffé, 271; history of the coup d'état,
Hogg's (the Ettrick Shepherd) identification of parr 272, 273; rancorous animosity against the Empe-
and salmon, 204.

ror, 273; consequent reaction in his favour, ib.;
Hole (Mr.) on institutions for mechanics, 30.

attack on the personal courage of the Emperor,

274; account of the massacre on the Boulevards,
India, considered as a field for English capital, 148; 274,275; exaggeration of the number killed, 275 ;

revolutions in the indigo trade, 150; native ma- account of the origin of the war, 276; misstate-
nia for adulterating every production, ib.; tea ments respecting St. Arnaud, 279; Lord Raglan's
plantations, 161-153; coffee planting, 153; Ben- interview with the French Emperor, 280; dupli-
gal silk trade, 154; the cotton question, 154, 155; city ascribed to Lord Raglan, 281; dinner at
Indian cotton good enough for 75 per cent of the Pembroke Lodge, 282; Duke of Newcastle's des-
manufactures, 155; scarcity of timber for rail- patch, 283; alleged removal of a buoy by the
way sleepers, 156; list of railways now open, French, 284; account of an interview between
157; tramways, ib. ; the Ganges canal, 159; irri- Lord Raglan and Marshal St. Arnaud, 286; de-
gation, ib.; mineral wealth, 160; gold, ib.; iron scription of the battle of the Alma, 289; move-
and coal, 161; want of fuel for iron works, and ments of the French army, 291; attack on General
remedies suggested, ib. ; the Damooda and other Codrington, 293 ; on Sir G. Brown, 294 ; on Lord
coal-fields, 162, 163; capital more profitable than Raglad, 295; invective against the alliance of

England and France, 298; perversions of histori. hoards of gold secreted by the Indians, 12; cal truth corrected only in notes, ib. ; text full of emeralds, ib. ; earthquakes daily, 13 ; volcanoes, blunders, 299; offensive potes, ib.; military blun- ib.; river communication with the Atlantic, 14; der pervading his narratives, ib.; the history at steamer to Peru, 3000 miles from the mouth of

variance with English justice and fair play, 300. the Amazon, 14, 15; government, 15; populaKnight's English Cyclopædia,' 183; its biographi- tion, ib. ; imports of British products, ib.; sympeal dietionary the most copious in the language, toms of detachment from the papacy, 16; nume197; contains many hundred biographies of the rical preponderance of the natives, ib.; their living, 198; its great literary merits, 199; con- character, 16 and 18; intellectual progress, 17; taids much information not in any other cyclo- anticipation of renovated nationality, ib. pædia, 200; deficiencies, ib.

Philology, Scriptural, 59.

Poland, its liberation compared to that of Italy, L. 'Lady Audley's Secret,' reviewed, 256.

233; retrospect of the partition, 236; review of

Russian and Polish history in relation to each Lawrence (Col.) at the battle of the Alma, 293. "Leisure Hour, The, recommended, 25.

other, 236; union of Lithuania with Poland, 237;

partition of Russian territory by Poland and Lima destroyed by an earthquake, 13; 200 survi

Sweden, 238; reign of Sobieski, 240; proposal vors out of 4000 inhabitants, ib.

of partition did not come from Russia, 241; proLlama, a beast of burden, 10; importation of its

posed to Catherine by Frederick the Great, ib; wool, ib. Lockhart (J. G.), Mrs. Gordon on his character, 117,

Russian resumption of Polish couquests not the

great crime of the age,' 242; parallel case of the 118; vindicated against her attack, 117.

Moors and Christians in Spain, ib.; Polish reliLong's (Professor) article on Roman Law, in the English Encyclopædia,' 200.

gious intolerance and persecution, 243; Catherine

justified by common religion and nationality, and Lusk, convict establishment at, 86.

ancient possession, 244 ; Polish anarchy, 245; M.

Constitution of 1791, a deathbed repentance, Markham's Travels in Peru, 6; courage and tact in 246; the Poland that lost independence consisted transporting cinchona trees to India, ib.

of 150,000 souls, 247; the Polish nobility were Marlborough characterised by Wellington, 128. the Polish nation, ib. ; Magna Charta of the Martin's (Sarab) efforts for the reformation of crimi. Polish slave-owner, 248; degraded situation of nals, 73.

the peasants, ib. ; fine of 15 franes for killing Migne's Encyclopédie Théologique,' 196.

one, 249; outrages on plebeian maidens, ib.; Miller's (General) services in Peru, 18.

inhuman domination of the nobles, ib. ; the par. Mita, or forced labour in Peru, 3.

tition a false ground of Polish complaint, ibi ; a Moore's (Sir John) despondent letter on his retreat just retribution for Polish aggression, 250; misto Corunna, 127.

government of Poland since 1815, ib.; the deepest Moréri's · Historical Dictionary,' 188.

brutality alone could make the independent N.

government regretted, ib.; duty of interposing Napoleon characterised by Wellington, 128.

between Alexander II. and his oppressed subNeilgberry Hills, cultivation of cinchona on, 6. jects, ib. ; an independent Poland a chimera, ib. No Name' reviewed, 158.

Purus (the), a water communication between Peru Jorgorod, its incorporation with the Grand Duchy and the Atlantic, 14. of Moscow, 35. P.

Quinine, trees producing, 6. Palmerston's (Lord) management of the Reform question, 132; the two chief points in his policy,

R. 133; conduct towards his Radical supporters, Radicals classified into Commercial (or Cotton), 134; the object of his administration to find an Religious, and Sentimental, 133. aeceptable substitute for Reform, ib; his admi- Raglan's (Lord). conduct in the invasion of the nistration more hostile to the Church than any Crimea, 283; in the battle of the Alma. See since Parliamentary government began, 137; 'Kinglake. patronising diametrically opposite systems of 'Recommended to Mercy' reviewed, 257. finance, 142; adroitness in playing a double part, Ruker's iron chair, 98. 145, 146; summary of charges against his minis- Rurik dynasty in Russia, extinction of, 36. try, 147.

Russell's (Earl) opinion of the indispensable union Panslavism, objects of, 46.

of Chureh and State, 136. Partington's · British Encyclopædia,' 197.

Russia, obscurity of its history, 32; early forms of Peel (Sir R.) on the character of Sir Robert Wal. constitutional government, ib.; vechés or assempole, 126.

blies of the people, 32, 33; their composition Peru, original extent of the appellation, 1; consti- and powers, 33, 34; the Slavonic veché of a retution of the native empire, 1, 2; early commu- presentative character, 34; final suppression of nication with Japan or "China, 2; its civilisation liberty at Pskof, 35; second period of Russian more remote tban the Incas, ib.; their theism history, ib.; States-General summoned in 1550, corrupted into bun-worship, ib.; administration 36; extinction of the Ruriks, ib.; decree of 1697 of Spain, 3; unprecedented consumption of life binding the peasants to the soil, ib. ; election of by forced Jabour, 3, 4; population reduced from Michael Romanof by the States-General in 1613, ten to two millions, 4; natives forced to pur. ib.; charter imposed on the new Tsar, 37; title chase useless articles, ib.; magnificence of the of Autocrat, 38; States-General of 1642, ib.; piceroya, ib.; streets pavedwith silver ingots, ib. ; reign and legislation of Alexis, 38, 39; retrospect forms of government since the revolt from Spain, of the States-General of the 16th and 17th cen. ib.; thirty revolutions in seven years, ib.; geogra- turies, 39, 40; reign of Peter I., 40; charter acphy of the modern republic, 6; cinchona or cepted by Anne, 41; accession of Catherine II., quinine, 5, 6; improvident destruction of the ib.; Parliament or Commission' of 1767, 42; trees, 6; aborigines, 7; richness of vegetation, source of the glory of her reign, ib. ; new era on ib.; inexhaustible supply of nitrate of soda, 8; the death of Nicholas, 43; state of Russia under particulars of the exports of it, ib.; borate of him. ib.; reforms by Alexander II , 44; emancilinae, 9; the guano war, 9, 10; calculation of the pation of 23 millions of persons, ib. ; conditions quantity of guarro on the Chincha Islands, 10; of the emancipation, ib.; earlier projects of emanBakan sulivation. il

made, ib.; nobility divided into two sections, 46; Stansfield (Mr.), the exponent of the Sentimental

objects of the Panslavist party, ib.; difficult po- Radicals, 133.

sition of the nobility, ib.; the mercantile commu- | Stratford de Redeliffe (Lord), Mr. Kinglake's fancy

nity, 46, 47; nature of Russian political agita- portrait of, 271

tion, 47; books translated into Russian, 48; Sunderbunds, islands in the Delta of the Ganges, 166.

what form of representative government adapted


to the country, ib.; constitution suggested by Talfourd (Justice) on the amalgamation of classes,
Dolgorukof, ib.; intellectual party, 49.


Russia and Poland. See Poland.'

Tay (the), description of, 212.


Ticket-of-leave system, 72; the army of criminals

Salmon: a prime salmon as valuable as a South- at large, ib. ; 160 offences formerly punishable

down sheep, 202; the salmon traced from the by death, 73 ; prisoners should be sentenced to

egg to the table, 203; the Duke of Athole and so much labour instead of time, 74; views of

Mr. Young's identification of the grilse and sal- Archbishop Whately and Captain Maconochie,

mon, ib.; rapid growth of the fish, ib. ; the ib.; objections to å purely penal colony, ib.;

Ettrick Shepherd's identification of the parr and substitution of penal servitude for transporta-

salmon, 204; Stormontfield experiments, 205; as tion, 75 ; punishments deterring and incapacitat-

possible to cultivate the waters as the land, ib.; ing, 76; incapacitation physical and moral, ib. ;

Mr. Ramsbottom's account of the impregnation defectiveness of the Act of 1853, 77 ; tickets of

of the ova, ib. ; summary of what has been leave not proofs of reformation, ib.; conditions of

achieved at Stormontfield ponds, 206; habits of revoking them a dead letter, 78; absence of

the salmon, 207; precision in returning to its supervision of liberated convicts, ib.; crimes

native stream, ib. ; the parr cannot live in salt becoming more atrocious, 79; increase of the

water, ib.; question of a biennial migration to percentage of recommittals, 80 ; diminution of

the sea, 208; piscicultural system in Ireland, ib.; The number of young offenders by reformatories,

Mr. Ashworth's fisheries, ib. ; state of the salmon 81; failure of the separate system in Penton-

fisheries in the three kingdoms, 209; overfishing, ville prison, 82 ; huge size of prisons a radical

ib. ; poaching a trade, 210; export of carrion' fault, 83; sending convicts to Bermuda and

to Paris, ib.; salm n once in the Thames, 211; Gibraltar pernicious, ib. ; management of women,

injury by fixed capturing engines, ib.; cause of ib. ; convict management in Ireland, 84; sug..

the diminishing weight of the fish, 211, 212; gestions, 90, 91. See Convict Management.'

necessity of protecting the grilse, 212; descri- Titicaca, the great lake, 5.

tion of the Tay, ib.; value of its fisheries, 213; Trevoux, publication of books without official

Severn produces the finest English salmon, 214; sanction at, 186.

suggestion for stocking it, ib.; the Spey well


managed, 215; Mr. Bain on the relation between Walpole's (Sir R.) character drawn by Sir Robert

upper and lower proprietors, ib.; results of spe- Peel, 126.

cial legislation for the Tweed, ib.; General Sal. Webster and Wilkinson's Greek Testament, 61.

mon Fisheries Act, 216; enumeration of improve- Wellington's characters of Napoleon, 128; and

ments by the Tweed Acts, ib.; table of the pro- Marlborough, 128, 129.

duce of the Tweed, 217, 218; fearful grilse Whateley's (Archbishop) opinion on secondary

slaughter, 218; results of angling at Sprouston punishment, 74.

Dub, 219; suggestions for legislation, 219, Whig colours, origin of the, 129.

Wilson (Professor), faults in Mrs. Gordon's Life of,

Sensation novels, a counterpart of the spasmodic 108; the Professor's parentage, 109; passion for

poem, 252; causes of this phenomenon in our angl ng, ib. ; love for the original of Margaret

literature, ib.; circulating-library, periodicals, Lindsay,' 110; life at Oxford, ib.; slovenly

and railway stalls, 252, 253; sensation novels habits, 111; pedestrian tours, ib.; allegiance to

for amusement or didactic, 254; proximity and the Lake school of poetry, ib.; anecdote of bull-

personality necessary for the sensationist, 255; hunting, 112; marriage, 113, poetical publica-

the sub-class Bigamy-novels, 255, 256 ; 'Lady tions, ib.; City of the Plague,' ib. ; loss of

Audley's Secret, 256 ; *Aurora Floyd,' 267 ; his patrimony, ib. ; unemployed as an advo-

noble-minded and interesting sinrers, 258; .No cate, ib.; letters from Jeffrey, 113-115: sba-

Name' and other novels reviewed, ib.; self- racteristic letter to the Etirick Shephl,

immolation of the author of Nobly False,' 260; 115; opinions on contemporary poets, 116;

a woman's noblest sacrifice made that of her connexion with Blackwood's Magazine,' 117,

virtue, ib. ; repulsive virtue and attractive vice, intimacy with J. G. Lockhart, 117, 118; the

261 ; the criminal variety of the newspaper Chaldee MS., 119; great extent of his couti bu-

novel, ib. ; holding a religious service in a gin- tions to · Blackwood,' 120; habits of composition,

palace, 262; the Old Roman Well,' a group of ib.; chosen professor of moral philosophy, ib.;

blackguards of both sexes, ib. ; female fiends a anecdote of his canvassing the magistrates,

stock article, ib.; mastery of thieves' Latir, 263; ib. ; description of him as a lecturer, 121;

theological sensation novels, ib. ; sensation titles, 'Lights and Shadows of Scottish Life,' ib.;

ib.; aristocratic branch of sensation literature, Margaret Lindsay,' ib. ; the most popular man

ib. ; hero and villain of the piece synonymous, in Scotland, 122 ; ascendency over his class, ib.;

ib.; penny and halfpenny sensation for the mil. brilliancy in conversation, ib.; death of Mrs.

lion, 264; specimens, ib.; picture of refined Wilson, ib.; break-up of his health, 122, 123;

love, ib. ; plebeian scene, 265; "Heart of Mid- resignation of the professorship, 113; pension,

Lothian' metamorphosed, 266; Scott neglected, ib.; death, 124; admirable personal character,

267; suggestion for a retrospective library, ib. ib. ; merits as a writer, ib.

"Sharpe's (Granville) rule' on the Greek article, Wordsworth's poetry, Jeffrey's opinion of, 114.
illustration of, 62.

Greek Testament, 49; wide range of
Singing-rooms and casinos, pernicious effects of, 27. the rotes, 51.
Soda (oitrate of), vast supply in Peru, 8 ; preferred

to guano, ib.

Young on the natural history and habits of the
Sodium universally present in the atmosphere, 9. salmon, 207.
St. Arnaud (Marshal) Mr. Kinglake's misstatements


concerning, 279.

*Zedler's Universal Lexikon,' in 68 folio volumes,

ha mnat an! anl of (asan anunlutione 19






Art. 1,-1, Travels in Peru and India, almost as solid as that of Rome. A state of

while superintending the Collection of turbulence constantly verging upon anarchy Chinchona Plants and Seeds in South has been inflicted on the descendants of the America, and their Introduction into India. men who destroyed a mighty empire which, By Clements R. Markham, F.S.A., F.R.G.S. if despotic in its form, was paternal in its London, 1862.

aspect, and certainly made the welfare of its 2. Cuzco and Lima; a Visit to the Capital subjects the primary object of its care; for

and Provinces of Modern Peru, By Cle- this.great monarchy fell not from the effects ments M. Markham, F.R.G.S. London, of any internal corruption, but it became the 1856.

prey of a gang of rogues, plunderers, and 3. Travels in Peru and Mexico. By S. S. ferocious bravoes, such as probably never Hill, Author of · Travels in Siberia,' &c. before or since disgraced the flag of a ChrisLondon, 1860.

tian State. 4. Antiquarian, Ethnological, and other Re- Of the different fragments into which this

searches in New Granada, Equador, Peru, great political edifice was broken, modern and Chili, By William Bollaert, F.R.G.S. Peru is perhaps the most interesting, if not London, 1860.

the most important. It has long suffered,

and we fear still suffers, from great misWhen the Spaniards first landed upon that government, but it abounds in the elements part of the American continent which bore of wealth, and many of its most important the name of Peru, it comprehended the material interests are connected with those whole of that enormous territory west of the of England. We propose, therefore, to avail Andes, from the second degree north, to the ourselves of the opportunity which the publiseventh degree of south latitude, and included cation of Mr. Markham's works presents, to the valleys and table-lands lying between the bring before our readers some of the princigreat mountain-chains, with certain tracts pal features of a country which he has reeast of the Andes, constituting the whole of cently explored, for a purpose to which we that vast region now subdivided into the five shall hereafter refer. States of New Granada, Ecuador, Bolivia, The civilisation which Peru had attained Chili, and Peru. It extended for 4000 miles when it first became known to the Spaniards in a straight line, and varied in breadth from is sketched by Robertson, and more minutely 300 to 400 miles. These Republics now delineated in the attractive and popular occupy the territory of a great native empire, pages of Prescott. The government may be and its inhabitants tread on the dust of an described as a system of imperialism assoancient people, whose government was in ciated with communism. The sovereign was every respect the most complete contrast to supreme and irresponsible; and, like the their own. Immobility was its characteristic, Emperor of China, he was regarded as the and that attribute is stamped on all the great vicegerent, almost as an impersonation, of public structures which have survived the the Deity. A redistribution of the soil was ravages of time; for they exhibit a cyclopean nrade every year, and it was proportioned to architecture as vast as that of Babylon, and the wants of every individual. Labour was



enforced on all for the benefit of all, Idle- gazed with astonishment. Colossal male and ness was not only reprobated as a vice, but female figures, crowned with turbans, indicate punished as a crime. Marriage was obliga- a people very different from the population of tory on all. The subject worked more for Peru under the Incas, and the very curious the community than for himself. A system sculpture, together with its minute detail and of organised labour provided for the construc-high finish, points to another phase of civilition of great public works; and magazines sation, if not to a separate race.

It is rewere established for the support of the people markable that this very ancient civilisation in case their ordinary resources failed. The should have had its seat in a region so elecountry was exempt from the two greatest vated as not to be very propitious either to afflictions of modern society-pauperism and the respiration of man or to cereal producwar. No powerful and ambitious neighbour tion, being a plain, almost constantly frozen, disturbed its repose; the only enterprises un- 135 feet above the lake. Some subsequent dertaken were against the wild frontier tribes, upheaval of the country has probably and their only object was to bring savages changed its climatic condition. The remains under the civilising rule of a beneficent des of the great temple and city of Pachacamac, potism. Not a beggar was to be seen within near Lima, afford additional evidence of the the limits of the empire. Under this pecu- remote civilisation of Peru. On a conical. liar system if no one could be poor, no one hill, 458 feet above the level of the sea, are could grow rich. Competition, the main the ruins of a temple, wbich, if the stories of spring of modern progress, was unknown; a the Spaniards are to be believed, must have monotonous uniformity, compatible with even surpassed in splendour the more celemuch happiness but destructive of individual brated Temple of the Sun at Cusco. It was self-reliance, must thus have constituted the built of sun-dried bricks, but all the riches of normal condition of the ancient Peruvian the country must have been lavished upon its nation under a government to which they are interior decoration. The massive doors were represented as having been devotedly at-plated with gold and studded with precious tached.

stones. It was dedicated to Pachacamac;* No writer has yet thrown any clear light and, as it contained no image or representaon the origin of this peculiar civilisation, or .ion of the Deity, a pure and simple Theism has been able to pronounce positively whe- is supposed to have been the primitive rether it was self-originated or derived. Either ligion of Pern, which was afterwards corJapan or China, however, probably first rupted by the Incas into an idolatrous wor* moulded the institutions of the Incas. Junks ship of the sun. They are said not to have have been often blown upon the western ventured at first to demolish this great coast of South America and wrecked ; and it temple, or to pollute it by the introduction is conceivable that although the first com- of any visible symbol of the Godhead, but to munication between the countries was thus have built by its side another teinple dediaccidental, an intercourse of some kind may cated to the Sun, to whose worship they at a very early period have been established hoped gradually to convert the conquered between them. There are traces of this race. early connexion between China and Peru in The ancient empire of Peru contained a some ancient ceremonial observances. Thus population of 30,000,000 souls, and the the remarkable annual solemnity in which country was cultivated in a manner of which the Emperor of China recognizes the import- China now affords the only example. Sandyance of agriculture, bad an almost exact plains were rendered fertile' by irrigation, and counterpart in an observance of the Peruvian mountain-steeps from which the llama could sovereigns. A sod was annually turned at a have scarcely picked its scanty food, were stated season by the monarch, who guided a shaped into terraces, and tilled with elaborate golden plough, and the day was kept as a The andeneria, as they were termed public festival and passed in general re- by the Spaniards, rose one above another, joicing.

tier over tier, up the steepest acclivities of the There was, however, an earlier civilisation bills

. No ground was neglected on which a in Peru than that which is supposed to have blade of corn would grow; and harvests been introduced by the Incas. Near Lakc waved on heights now visited only by the Titicaca, and 12,930 feet above the level of condor and the eagle. When subsistence the sea, are still to be seen the ruins of vast was secured taste was gratified. The hangedifices which must have belonged to a ing gardens of the Andes were the delight of people considerably advanced in the arts of a people who, by fixing their habitations in

These consist of immense monolithic doorways and masses of hewn stone, on

* Pacha signified in the ancient language of which the Incas themselves are said to have Peru 'the Creator;' Cama 'the Earth.'



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