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eyclopædia Metropolitana,' 197; Partington's in Australia or New Zealand, 163, 164; a British
pects of English settlers as landowners, 164, 165;
Alma, 298. Chittagong, Sumbulpore, and the Sunderbunde,
as districts for European settlers, 166.
Indigo trade, revolutions in, 150.
Institutes for working men, 18; history of Mecha-
nics' Institutes, 19; no longer institutions for me-
chanics, 20; skilled workmen will not fuse with
rough labourers, ib.; adults should not be mixed
accorded to emoking, ib.; mental ealibre of work.
the uneducated, 22; remarks on the style and
delivery of lectures, ib.; causes of failure, 23;
value of anecdotes, ib.; proper subjects for lec-
tures, ib. ; ' Working Men's Educational Union,'
ib.; suggestions for the library, 25; reading-room,
26; evening classes, ib.; examinations of the So-
ciety of Arts, ib. ; village libraries and reading.
rooms, 27; Bible-class, 28; in whom the manage-
ment should be vested, ib.; eauses of the decay
of such institutions, 30.
Ionian Islands, sacrifice of the, 143; England's em-
cession of territory without parliamentary sanc-
Italian unity, impediments to, 139; resistance of
the Pope, ib.; of the Emperor, 140.
91; accidental communication of vitality to the
Museum, 92; Mr. Robinson's share in its creation,
epitome of art history for 1500 years, 96; sum-
mary of the collections, ib.; symbols of French
and English manners of the 18th century, 98;
iron chair of Ruker, ib. ; sudden change from the
art of the middle ages to that of the Renaissance,
99; variety of styles termed Gothic, ib. ; imper-
fect knowledge of the resources of mediæval art,
100; description of remarkable classes and arti.
cles in the collection, 100, 101; questions as to
the practical value of the Loan Exhibition, 102;
advantages of such exhibitions, 103; effect on the
study and appreciation of artistic styles, 104;
argument for disconnecting the School and the
Collection, 105, 106; merits of the Catalogue of
the Loan Exhibition, 106; general gratification
afforded by it, 107.
artificial, ib.; Louis Napoleon represented as the
cause of the war, 269; fancy portrait of Lord Strat-
ford de Redeliffé, 271; history of the coup d'état,
ror, 273; consequent reaction in his favour, ib.;
attack on the personal courage of the Emperor,
274; account of the massacre on the Boulevards,
revolutions in the indigo trade, 150; native ma- account of the origin of the war, 276; misstate-
England and France, 298; perversions of histori. hoards of gold secreted by the Indians, 12; cal truth corrected only in notes, ib. ; text full of emeralds, ib. ; earthquakes daily, 13 ; volcanoes, blunders, 299; offensive potes, ib.; military blun- ib.; river communication with the Atlantic, 14; der pervading his narratives, ib.; the history at steamer to Peru, 3000 miles from the mouth of
variance with English justice and fair play, 300. the Amazon, 14, 15; government, 15; populaKnight's English Cyclopædia,' 183; its biographi- tion, ib. ; imports of British products, ib.; sympeal dietionary the most copious in the language, toms of detachment from the papacy, 16; nume197; contains many hundred biographies of the rical preponderance of the natives, ib.; their living, 198; its great literary merits, 199; con- character, 16 and 18; intellectual progress, 17; taids much information not in any other cyclo- anticipation of renovated nationality, ib. pædia, 200; deficiencies, ib.
Philology, Scriptural, 59.
Poland, its liberation compared to that of Italy, L. 'Lady Audley's Secret,' reviewed, 256.
233; retrospect of the partition, 236; review of
Russian and Polish history in relation to each Lawrence (Col.) at the battle of the Alma, 293. "Leisure Hour, The, recommended, 25.
other, 236; union of Lithuania with Poland, 237;
partition of Russian territory by Poland and Lima destroyed by an earthquake, 13; 200 survi
Sweden, 238; reign of Sobieski, 240; proposal vors out of 4000 inhabitants, ib.
of partition did not come from Russia, 241; proLlama, a beast of burden, 10; importation of its
posed to Catherine by Frederick the Great, ib; wool, ib. Lockhart (J. G.), Mrs. Gordon on his character, 117,
Russian resumption of Polish couquests not the
great crime of the age,' 242; parallel case of the 118; vindicated against her attack, 117.
Moors and Christians in Spain, ib.; Polish reliLong's (Professor) article on Roman Law, in the English Encyclopædia,' 200.
gious intolerance and persecution, 243; Catherine
justified by common religion and nationality, and Lusk, convict establishment at, 86.
ancient possession, 244 ; Polish anarchy, 245; M.
Constitution of 1791, a deathbed repentance, Markham's Travels in Peru, 6; courage and tact in 246; the Poland that lost independence consisted transporting cinchona trees to India, ib.
of 150,000 souls, 247; the Polish nobility were Marlborough characterised by Wellington, 128. the Polish nation, ib. ; Magna Charta of the Martin's (Sarab) efforts for the reformation of crimi. Polish slave-owner, 248; degraded situation of nals, 73.
the peasants, ib. ; fine of 15 franes for killing Migne's Encyclopédie Théologique,' 196.
one, 249; outrages on plebeian maidens, ib.; Miller's (General) services in Peru, 18.
inhuman domination of the nobles, ib. ; the par. Mita, or forced labour in Peru, 3.
tition a false ground of Polish complaint, ibi ; a Moore's (Sir John) despondent letter on his retreat just retribution for Polish aggression, 250; misto Corunna, 127.
government of Poland since 1815, ib.; the deepest Moréri's · Historical Dictionary,' 188.
brutality alone could make the independent N.
government regretted, ib.; duty of interposing Napoleon characterised by Wellington, 128.
between Alexander II. and his oppressed subNeilgberry Hills, cultivation of cinchona on, 6. jects, ib. ; an independent Poland a chimera, ib. No Name' reviewed, 158.
Purus (the), a water communication between Peru Jorgorod, its incorporation with the Grand Duchy and the Atlantic, 14. of Moscow, 35. P.
Quinine, trees producing, 6. Palmerston's (Lord) management of the Reform question, 132; the two chief points in his policy,
R. 133; conduct towards his Radical supporters, Radicals classified into Commercial (or Cotton), 134; the object of his administration to find an Religious, and Sentimental, 133. aeceptable substitute for Reform, ib; his admi- Raglan's (Lord). conduct in the invasion of the nistration more hostile to the Church than any Crimea, 283; in the battle of the Alma. See since Parliamentary government began, 137; 'Kinglake. patronising diametrically opposite systems of 'Recommended to Mercy' reviewed, 257. finance, 142; adroitness in playing a double part, Ruker's iron chair, 98. 145, 146; summary of charges against his minis- Rurik dynasty in Russia, extinction of, 36. try, 147.
Russell's (Earl) opinion of the indispensable union Panslavism, objects of, 46.
of Chureh and State, 136. Partington's · British Encyclopædia,' 197.
Russia, obscurity of its history, 32; early forms of Peel (Sir R.) on the character of Sir Robert Wal. constitutional government, ib.; vechés or assempole, 126.
blies of the people, 32, 33; their composition Peru, original extent of the appellation, 1; consti- and powers, 33, 34; the Slavonic veché of a retution of the native empire, 1, 2; early commu- presentative character, 34; final suppression of nication with Japan or "China, 2; its civilisation liberty at Pskof, 35; second period of Russian more remote tban the Incas, ib.; their theism history, ib.; States-General summoned in 1550, corrupted into bun-worship, ib.; administration 36; extinction of the Ruriks, ib.; decree of 1697 of Spain, 3; unprecedented consumption of life binding the peasants to the soil, ib. ; election of by forced Jabour, 3, 4; population reduced from Michael Romanof by the States-General in 1613, ten to two millions, 4; natives forced to pur. ib.; charter imposed on the new Tsar, 37; title chase useless articles, ib.; magnificence of the of Autocrat, 38; States-General of 1642, ib.; piceroya, ib.; streets pavedwith silver ingots, ib. ; reign and legislation of Alexis, 38, 39; retrospect forms of government since the revolt from Spain, of the States-General of the 16th and 17th cen. ib.; thirty revolutions in seven years, ib.; geogra- turies, 39, 40; reign of Peter I., 40; charter acphy of the modern republic, 6; cinchona or cepted by Anne, 41; accession of Catherine II., quinine, 5, 6; improvident destruction of the ib.; Parliament or Commission' of 1767, 42; trees, 6; aborigines, 7; richness of vegetation, source of the glory of her reign, ib. ; new era on ib.; inexhaustible supply of nitrate of soda, 8; the death of Nicholas, 43; state of Russia under particulars of the exports of it, ib.; borate of him. ib.; reforms by Alexander II , 44; emancilinae, 9; the guano war, 9, 10; calculation of the pation of 23 millions of persons, ib. ; conditions quantity of guarro on the Chincha Islands, 10; of the emancipation, ib.; earlier projects of emanBakan sulivation. il
made, ib.; nobility divided into two sections, 46; Stansfield (Mr.), the exponent of the Sentimental
to the country, ib.; constitution suggested by Talfourd (Justice) on the amalgamation of classes,
Dub, 219; suggestions for legislation, 219, Whig colours, origin of the, 129.
Wilson (Professor), faults in Mrs. Gordon's Life of,
"Sharpe's (Granville) rule' on the Greek article, Wordsworth's poetry, Jeffrey's opinion of, 114.
Greek Testament, 49; wide range of
Young on the natural history and habits of the
ha mnat an! anl of (asan anunlutione 19
LONDON QUARTERLY REVIEW.
FOR JANUARY, 1863.
Art. 1,-1, Travels in Peru and India, almost as solid as that of Rome. A state of
while superintending the Collection of turbulence constantly verging upon anarchy Chinchona Plants and Seeds in South has been inflicted on the descendants of the America, and their Introduction into India. men who destroyed a mighty empire which, By Clements R. Markham, F.S.A., F.R.G.S. if despotic in its form, was paternal in its London, 1862.
aspect, and certainly made the welfare of its 2. Cuzco and Lima; a Visit to the Capital subjects the primary object of its care; for
and Provinces of Modern Peru, By Cle- this.great monarchy fell not from the effects ments M. Markham, F.R.G.S. London, of any internal corruption, but it became the 1856.
prey of a gang of rogues, plunderers, and 3. Travels in Peru and Mexico. By S. S. ferocious bravoes, such as probably never Hill, Author of · Travels in Siberia,' &c. before or since disgraced the flag of a ChrisLondon, 1860.
tian State. 4. Antiquarian, Ethnological, and other Re- Of the different fragments into which this
searches in New Granada, Equador, Peru, great political edifice was broken, modern and Chili, By William Bollaert, F.R.G.S. Peru is perhaps the most interesting, if not London, 1860.
the most important. It has long suffered,
and we fear still suffers, from great misWhen the Spaniards first landed upon that government, but it abounds in the elements part of the American continent which bore of wealth, and many of its most important the name of Peru, it comprehended the material interests are connected with those whole of that enormous territory west of the of England. We propose, therefore, to avail Andes, from the second degree north, to the ourselves of the opportunity which the publiseventh degree of south latitude, and included cation of Mr. Markham's works presents, to the valleys and table-lands lying between the bring before our readers some of the princigreat mountain-chains, with certain tracts pal features of a country which he has reeast of the Andes, constituting the whole of cently explored, for a purpose to which we that vast region now subdivided into the five shall hereafter refer. States of New Granada, Ecuador, Bolivia, The civilisation which Peru had attained Chili, and Peru. It extended for 4000 miles when it first became known to the Spaniards in a straight line, and varied in breadth from is sketched by Robertson, and more minutely 300 to 400 miles. These Republics now delineated in the attractive and popular occupy the territory of a great native empire, pages of Prescott. The government may be and its inhabitants tread on the dust of an described as a system of imperialism assoancient people, whose government was in ciated with communism. The sovereign was every respect the most complete contrast to supreme and irresponsible; and, like the their own. Immobility was its characteristic, Emperor of China, he was regarded as the and that attribute is stamped on all the great vicegerent, almost as an impersonation, of public structures which have survived the the Deity. A redistribution of the soil was ravages of time; for they exhibit a cyclopean nrade every year, and it was proportioned to architecture as vast as that of Babylon, and the wants of every individual. Labour was
enforced on all for the benefit of all, Idle- gazed with astonishment. Colossal male and ness was not only reprobated as a vice, but female figures, crowned with turbans, indicate punished as a crime. Marriage was obliga- a people very different from the population of tory on all. The subject worked more for Peru under the Incas, and the very curious the community than for himself. A system sculpture, together with its minute detail and of organised labour provided for the construc-high finish, points to another phase of civilition of great public works; and magazines sation, if not to a separate race.
It is rewere established for the support of the people markable that this very ancient civilisation in case their ordinary resources failed. The should have had its seat in a region so elecountry was exempt from the two greatest vated as not to be very propitious either to afflictions of modern society-pauperism and the respiration of man or to cereal producwar. No powerful and ambitious neighbour tion, being a plain, almost constantly frozen, disturbed its repose; the only enterprises un- 135 feet above the lake. Some subsequent dertaken were against the wild frontier tribes, upheaval of the country has probably and their only object was to bring savages changed its climatic condition. The remains under the civilising rule of a beneficent des of the great temple and city of Pachacamac, potism. Not a beggar was to be seen within near Lima, afford additional evidence of the the limits of the empire. Under this pecu- remote civilisation of Peru. On a conical. liar system if no one could be poor, no one hill, 458 feet above the level of the sea, are could grow rich. Competition, the main the ruins of a temple, wbich, if the stories of spring of modern progress, was unknown; a the Spaniards are to be believed, must have monotonous uniformity, compatible with even surpassed in splendour the more celemuch happiness but destructive of individual brated Temple of the Sun at Cusco. It was self-reliance, must thus have constituted the built of sun-dried bricks, but all the riches of normal condition of the ancient Peruvian the country must have been lavished upon its nation under a government to which they are interior decoration. The massive doors were represented as having been devotedly at-plated with gold and studded with precious tached.
stones. It was dedicated to Pachacamac;* No writer has yet thrown any clear light and, as it contained no image or representaon the origin of this peculiar civilisation, or .ion of the Deity, a pure and simple Theism has been able to pronounce positively whe- is supposed to have been the primitive rether it was self-originated or derived. Either ligion of Pern, which was afterwards corJapan or China, however, probably first rupted by the Incas into an idolatrous wor* moulded the institutions of the Incas. Junks ship of the sun. They are said not to have have been often blown upon the western ventured at first to demolish this great coast of South America and wrecked ; and it temple, or to pollute it by the introduction is conceivable that although the first com- of any visible symbol of the Godhead, but to munication between the countries was thus have built by its side another teinple dediaccidental, an intercourse of some kind may cated to the Sun, to whose worship they at a very early period have been established hoped gradually to convert the conquered between them. There are traces of this race. early connexion between China and Peru in The ancient empire of Peru contained a some ancient ceremonial observances. Thus population of 30,000,000 souls, and the the remarkable annual solemnity in which country was cultivated in a manner of which the Emperor of China recognizes the import- China now affords the only example. Sandyance of agriculture, bad an almost exact plains were rendered fertile' by irrigation, and counterpart in an observance of the Peruvian mountain-steeps from which the llama could sovereigns. A sod was annually turned at a have scarcely picked its scanty food, were stated season by the monarch, who guided a shaped into terraces, and tilled with elaborate golden plough, and the day was kept as a The andeneria, as they were termed public festival and passed in general re- by the Spaniards, rose one above another, joicing.
tier over tier, up the steepest acclivities of the There was, however, an earlier civilisation bills
. No ground was neglected on which a in Peru than that which is supposed to have blade of corn would grow; and harvests been introduced by the Incas. Near Lakc waved on heights now visited only by the Titicaca, and 12,930 feet above the level of condor and the eagle. When subsistence the sea, are still to be seen the ruins of vast was secured taste was gratified. The hangedifices which must have belonged to a ing gardens of the Andes were the delight of people considerably advanced in the arts of a people who, by fixing their habitations in
These consist of immense monolithic doorways and masses of hewn stone, on
* Pacha signified in the ancient language of which the Incas themselves are said to have Peru 'the Creator;' Cama 'the Earth.'