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IS the curse of service:

Preferment goes by letter, and affection, And not (1) by old gradation, where each second Stood heir to th' first.


In dispraise of Honesty. We cannot all be masters, nor all masters Cannot be truly follow'd. You shall mark Many a duteous and knee-crooking knave, That, doting on his own obfequious bondage, Wears out his time much like his master's ass, For nought but provender, and when he's old, cashier'd; Whip me such honest knaves. Others there are


(1) By old, &c.] i. c. by the old and former gradation, the old and usual method formerly practis’d. It is a very common manner of expression, when speaking of any thing formerly in use.

Who trimm'd in forms and visages of duty,
Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves ;
And throwing but shows of service on their lords, :
Well thrive by them: and when they have lin'd their

Do themselves homage. These folks have some soul,
And such a one do I profess myself. For, Sir,
It is as sure as you are Roderigo,
(2) Were I thé Moor, I would not be lago :
In following him, I follow but myself.
Heav'n is my judge, not I, for love and duty,
But seeming so, for my peculiar end :
For when my outward action doth demonstrate
The native act and figure of my heart
In compliment extern, 'tis not long after
But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve,
For daws to peck at; I am not what I seem.

SCENE IV. Love the sole Motive of Othello's


For know Iago,
But that I love the gentle Desdemona,
I would not my unhoused free condition
Put into circumfcription and confine,
For the sea's worth.

Scene VIII. Othello's Relation of his Courtship

to the Senate.

Most potent, grave, and reverend figniors, My very noble, and approv'd good masters;


(2) Were I, &c.] This bears fome resemblance to that celebrated answer of Alexander wbich Longinus so greatly comiends

-See his Essay on the Sublime, fect. 9. “When Parmenio cried, “ I would accept these proposals, if I was Alexander ;Alexander made this noble reply, " And so would 1, if I was Parmenigo?? Hlis answer shew'd the greatness of his mind. See the learned Dr. Pearce's note on the passage..

That I have ta'en away this old man's daughter,
It is most true ; true I have married her;
The very head, and front of my offending,
Hath this extent; no more. Rude am I in my speech,
And little bleft with the (3) soft phrase of peace;
For since these arms of mine had seven years pith,
'Till now, fome nine moons wasted, they have us’d,
Their dearest action, in the tented field;
And little of this great world can I speak,
More than pertains to feats of broils and battle;
And therefore little shall I grace my cause,
In speaking for myself. Yet by your gracious patience,
I will a round unvarnish'd tale deliver,
Of my whole course of love. What drugs, what

What conjuration, and what mighty magic,
(For fuch proceeding. I am charg'd withal)
I won his daughter with.

Her father lov'd me, oft invited me; Still questioned me the story of my life, From year to year; the battles, fieges, fortunes, That I have past. I ran it through, e'en from my boyish days, To th' very moment that he både nie tell it': Wherein I spoke of moft disastrous chances, Of moving accidents by food and field; Of hair-breadth ?[capes i'th'imminent deadly breach ; Of being taken by the insolent foe, And fold to flavery ; of my redemption thence, (4) And (5) with it all my travels' history.




(3) Soft), i.e. gentle, persuasive, such as is usod by senators and men of peace.

(4) And, &c.] I have omitted here five or fix lines, which tho' indeed capable of defence, cannot well be produced as beauties. The fimplest expressions, where nature and propriety: dictate, may be truly sublime ; such is all this fine fpeech of Othello. (5) Portance in my

others read.


All these to hear
Would Desdemona seriously incline ;
But still the house affairs would draw her thence
Which ever as she could with haste dispatch,
She'd come again, and with a greedy ear
Devour up my discourse: which I observing,
Took once a pliant hour, and found good means
To draw from her a prayer of earnest heart,
That I would all my pilgrimage dilate,
Whereof by parcels she had fomething heard,
But not distinctively; I did consent,
And often did beguile her of her tears,
When I did fpeak of fome distressful stroke,
That my youth suffer'd. My story being done,
She gave me for my pains a world of fighs ;
She swore in faith, 'twas ftrange, 'twas passing strange,
'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful-
She wish'd she had not heard it, yet she wilh'd
That heaven had made her such a man ; -the thank'd

And bade me, if I had a friend that lov'd her,
I should but teach him how to tell my story;
And that would woo her. On this hint I spake;
She lov'd me for the dangers I had past,
And I lov'd her, that she did pity them.

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O my soul's joy! If after every tempeft comes such calms, May the winds blow, till they have weaken'd death: (6) And let the labouring bark climb hills of seas

Olympus (6) And, &c.] This is plainly taken from that Pfalm, which the Reader will find quoted in n. 15.p. 112. vol. 2.the latter part of

Olympus high; and duck again as low
As heli's from heaven. If I were now to die,
'Twere now to be most happy; for I fear
My soul hath her content fo absolute,
That not another comfort like to this
Succeeds in unknown fate.

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(7) Excellent wretch! perdition catch my soul, But I do love thee, and when I.lore thee not, Chaos is come again.


this passage is very like one in the Eunuch of Terence, where Cleria in a transport of delight, breaks out into the following exclamation ;

Proh Jupiler!
Nunc tempus profecto est, cum perpeti me porum interfici,
Ne vita aliquâ hoc gaudium contaminet agritudine.

A. 3. Sc. 5.
Oh Jupiter!
Now is the time that I could gladly yield to death;
Left life with some affliction should pollute
My heart's content.

G. E. (7) Wretch] This word is found in all the copies; but ne. vertheless Mr. Theobald, and the Oxford editor read wench, which tho' doubtless it was “not formerly used in the low and vulgar acceptation, it is at present,” yet I am persuaded Shakespear gave us wretch, and Mr. Upton's remark seems very jult and beautiful : speaking of Difdemora's name, which is detiv'd from Ausdarkwv, i. e. the unfórtur:atc ; he says, “ and I make no question, but Othello, in his rapturous admiration, with some allusion to her name exclaims, Excellent wretch," &c.

The ancient tragedians are full of these allusions ; fome inItances I have mention'd above ; this rapturous exclamation and allusion too has something ominous in it; and instances of these presaging and ominous expreffions our poet is full of.” See Criticai Obfervations, p. 303.

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