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Game of chess
367 Menagiana, the

110
Germany

15 Method of making transparent soap 368
Ghost, a ; or well-contrived escape 233 Method of preventing lamp glasses
Goethe and Blumenbach

485
from bursting

328
Golfing
164 Migration of caterpillars

250
Governess, the
22, 460 Milk and cream

128
Grand balloon
486 Miss Kelly

455
Great call, the
167 Model of St Petersburgh

486
Greece
52 Modern telegraph, the

487
Greenwich hospital
408 Moldavia, Wallachia, &c.

13
Musical prodigy

367
Haiti

56 My grandfather's legacy 108, 152, 206,
Heat

328

231, 266, 314, 350, 388, 460
Hints on the impressment of seamen 369 My uncle's tale

93
Hints to the ladies, or beauty-training 399
History of conquest of England, no- Native village, the

99
tice of
62 Nautical challenge

486
Hopkins, Elizabeth, heroism of 168 Nautical opinions, with an anecdote 122
Horn, animal, working of in general 397 New life boat

448
Human skeleton
447 New lights

87

New method of bleaching sponge 287
Muminating power of coal and oil gas 329 New publications, notices of 62, 368, 440
Impressment of seaman, hints on 369 New South Wales

56
In and out of love
437 New tragedian

457
lofant Lyra, the
45 Night coach, the

311
Influence of early impressions on the North America

11
future character
462 North American review

269
Inhuman racing
287 Novel-writing, the art of

403
Innocents, the, a sacred drama, 10- Nuptial ceremonies

407
tice of

442
Instrument of torture

167

Of the ploughman that sayde bis pa-
Involuntary miracle, the

448
136

ternoster
Irish chivalry
484 Orkney islands

88
Iron-wire bridge

488
Italy

390
Parrot and daw, anecdotes of
15
Parsee rigour

76
Jan Schalken's three wishes

Patent for British cashmere

326
185
Jordan, Mrs

Peep at the pilgrims

143
46
Phoebe Hessel

48
Kean, the actor

Poems on sacred subjects, notice of 441
King's stag, the ; a Dorsetshire tra-

Poetic hours, notice of

442
dition

Popular Fallacies

449
Popularity in authorship

319
Powder and guns

487
Lake Asphaltites, the

454
Precious relique

408
Law-suit, the

388
Letter to the bells of a parish church

Progress of playhouses

405
in Italy

* Puritans," the term

328
284
Letters of a South-America seaman

Pythagorean objections to animal
food

372
115, 160, 186, 213, 272, 306, 332 Ploughman that sayde his paternos-
Letters of recommendation, utility of 424
Life at sea

448
ter, of the

247
Life boat, new
448 Quarantine laws, the

125
Lighting steeple clocks

368 Queen Elizabeth's manuscript, disco-
Lionel Lincoln
201

487
Lost feelings
245 Quills, method of preparing

127
Lovers, the
314

287
Madame de Stael, unpublished es-

Race, the word
Racing in Russia

199
324 Raphael

485
Madame du Fresnoy
166 Rapid evaporation

88
Manners of the Russians in the tenth Recruit in Lisbon, a

341
century
467 Refugee, the

239
Mansie Wauch, autobiography of

196, Retrospect of the efforts and progress
217, 478

of mankind during the last twenty
Massenburg, a tale, notice of 63
Matthews, the actor
46 Rights of woman

375

361

79,

Very of

say by

five years

9, 49

443

oceans

Rings
288 " The high mettled racer”

288
Ruin from economy
483 The tavern

243
Rural excursion; by a young bachelor 316 The term “ puritans"

328
Russia

51 The two brothers, a Hungarian tale 429
Russians in the tenth century 467 The unguarded moment

228
Scene at Constantinople, a
392

248
Thief curiously detected

To make flat iron bars steel only half
Seville, scene in

128
Short mystery, a

through

190
Singular criminal case

To restore the color of woollen cloths 327
466

352

Tom Cordery: a character
Singular custom

88
326

Troubadour, the
singular origin

47
Sir Reginald, or the days of 1745 381

Unguarded moment, the

228
Sitometer

488

Union of the Atlantic and Pacific
Sixth eclogue of Virgil, Silenus, on the 209

347
Slave trade

208
Smollett (Dr) and his family

Unpublished essay by mad. de Stael 324
154
Useful hints

407
Soldier's faith, a

108
Soldier's revenge, a

409

Utility of letters of recommendation 424
South-American seaman, letters of
115, 160, 186, 213, 272, 306, 332 Varieties 45, 86, 124, 164, 208, 247, 287,

324, 367, 405, 446, 485
Spain

17
Spectre of Pont Vathew, the 471

Victor Leoni, or the Venetian captive 302,

336
Sporting

88
Visit to the royal chapel

400
St Mark's eve
288

407
Steam coach

Voltaire, anecdote of

287
Strawberry, cultivation of

301

War, brutalizing tendency of, &c 38
Stature, elasticity of

322
Watch-glass microscope

447
Superstitions in the west of England 141

248

Weaving in India
Sabaitern, the, notice of

441
Weaving in Scotland

126
Sweden, &c.

50
Wife and the witch, the

129, 175
Tales by the O'Hara family, notice of 67 Woman's hate

156, 171
Talisman, the

448

79,

POETRY.

Ballad romance

268 Oh! sweet comes the zephyr's breath
Bernardo del Carpio
249 to-night

75
Oh tell me not I shall forget

309
Campeador's spectre host

74
On the seasons

459
Christmas

216
Orphan maid's lament

289
Curious coincidences

140
Oysters in abundance

182
Elopement, the, a ballad

387
Sicilian captive

60
Farewell
244, 398 Song

167
Farewell to the spring

289

by a mother to her infant 346
Greenwood tree, the
237 of harvest, the

196
Sonnet

436
Home, sweet hone
436 Sonnets, to Isabel V.

29
Landing of the pilgrim fathers in

Specimens of ancient poetry

344
New-England

268
Stanzas

309
Light supper, or oysters in abundance 182

to Jessy

37
344

to
Lines, by John Phyllips

189
Logogriph, by Mrs Barbauld
467 Tasso to his lyre

442
Madrigal, by Thos. Lodge

61
347

The lot of thousands
Moorish war-song

436
The preponderating motive

114
My birth-day

460

To Alice
Mynheer Werter's first interview

To know each fishes haunt

345
with Charlotte

167
446

Trust not, oh, trust not

Venetian song
Norfolk turnippe, the ; an auncient

219
tale
388 Warrior's tomb, the

38
Nymph and zephyr
151 Woman's heart

237

92

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TH

THE strong feeling of interest and come into general use, that the ex

curiosity which this subject is pense of transporting commodities now exciting in the public mind; the will be about two-thirds less than on variety of companies which are dai- the best roads. ly forming, to connect, by means of

With respect to the advantages of rail-ways, the most important mer

a rail-way over a canal, which is the cantile and manufacturing stations in question here principally at issue, we the kingdom; the secret opposition may observe, in the first place, that which is now vigorously exerting if a horse power effect three times as itself on the part of interested bodies, much on a canal as on a rail-way, with any object in view but the pub- the original cost and subsequent relic good; seem to point out the pro- pairs of a canal are about three times priety of setting before the public a as great ; consequently, a canal will general view of the advantages which require about the same rates or dues rail-ways are likely to furnish, and to to repay the proprietors as a raildirect their attention to the quarters

way. It must next be observed, that whence opposition may be expected. this comparison relates entirely to

On a well made road a horse will the transporting of goods at two miles draw one ton, in a cart weighing

an hour.

Now it is easy to show, about 7cwt., or about 3000lb.,

at a that so long as horse power is emrate of two miles an hour.

ployed on canals, and they are not rail-way of the best construction he suficiently deep and broad to admit will draw, at the same rate of trave the application of steam, this rate of elling, about 15 tons ; let us call this

transporting goods cannot be increas30,000lb. for the convenience of hav, ed without an increase of freight, ing round numbers; and on a canal which would entirely destroy their he will draw about 30 tons in a boat superiority over roads. We have weighing 15 tons, or about 90,000lb. seen that a horse will draw about Hence, on a rail-way, the draught of 90,000lb. at the rate of two miles an a horse is ten times, and on a canal hour. If we increase the velocity of tkirty times, as great as on a well the boat, the resistance will also be made road. Now a rail-way costs increased, and with amazing rapidity. about three times, and a canal about The resistance of a fluid increases as nine times, as much as a good road ; the square of the velocity. Since and it is probable that the expense 90,000lb., therefore, is drawn at the of keeping them in repair, is in pro- rate of two miles an hour by one portion to the original outlay. It is horse ; obvious, therefore, if railways should

1 ATHENEUM, VOL. 3. 2d series,

On a

12

6 8

At 4 miles an hour it would require 4 increasing the velocity on a rail-way, 6

9

the resistance is not at all increased; 8

16

it is, if any thing, rather diminished.

36,3 Abstracting from consideration the Or, At 4 miles an hour, the draught of 1 horse resistance of the air, the very force will be about

22,0001b. which impels a body at two miles an 10,000 hour, may, by very simple contriv5000

ances, be made to impel it at ten or 12

2000

twelve miles an hour. If we apply to In this computation it is assumed the body to be moved on a rail-way, that the draught of a horse is the a force just equal to the resistance same at two, four, six, and eight miles due to the friction, it will not move; an hour. In fact, however, its draught it will be exactly in a state of equidiminishes very rapidly as its veloci- librium. But the smallest increase ty increases, a great portion of its of force will put it in motion. If this strength being exhausted in support- small increase of force be a constanting its velocity. If inolb. measurely acting force, like that due to the force of traction of a horse, when steam, its motion will be continually travelling at the rate of two miles an accelerated, and would, ultimately, hour, then will this power be reduced become greater than any assignable to 641b, when he travels at the rate limit. llere we see the advantage of four iniles an hour; and for high- of steam power; animal power could er rates of travelling it diminishes never be so applied as to produce still more rapidly. Here the draught this effect; because, as the velocity of a horse on a canal, at the rate of of the vehicle increases, the draught four miles an hour, is little more than of animal power is diminished, be12,000lb. It is needless to push this coming small indeed when it reachinquiry any farther ; it is quite cleares the velocity of ten or twelve that goods can never be transported miles an hour. When the vehicle on a canal at a rate exceeding two has attained any proposed velocity, or two and a half miles an hour.- whether that velocity be generated Let us sce now what will be the ef- in the first instance by the continued fect of an increased rate of travelling action of the impelling force, or by on a rail

way. And here we shall any other means, it is merely necesarrive at a series of conclusions dia- sary, in order that it should retain metrically opposite to those we liave that velocity, that there should be an deduced for canals. The resistance impelling force just suficient to overto communication of motion on come the friction and the resistance rail-way arises from the friciion and to the air. Hence, on a rail-way, the resistance of the air. For

any

the erpenditure of force due to a verate of travelling which is likely to locity of ten or twelve miles an hour, be adopted, 8, 10, or 12 miles an is very little more than that due to a hour, the resistance arising from the velocity of two miles en hour. This atmosphere is very triting compared is the grand mechanical advantage with that due to the friction. We which a rail-road possesses over a shall, therefore, altogether neglect its canal. But it is on the application consideration. The resistance due to of steam, and on a consequent capathe friction is proportional only to city of m:intaining a constant action, the pressure. It is entirely indepen, however great the velocity of the vedent of the velocity. This is the hicle, that this advantage depends. grand circumstance which distinguish. Without steam a railway would be of es a rail-way from a canal, and which no use ; it would possess no superigives the former such an immense ority over a canal.

Animal power advantage over the latter. On a ca- could not have been applied with nal, by incrcasing the velocity of the any advantageous effect, because its boat, we increase the resistance to draught diminishies so rapidly with its motion at a very rapid rate ; by an increase of velocity.

a

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