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two ships, which had on board 300 passengers. Of these, 170 1736. were Germans; who, with others of their countrymen who followed them, settled a town on Savannah river, which they called Ebenezer.1
The Trustees, desirous that the Highlanders whom they had a missionengaged to settle in Georgia should have a presbyterian minister ary provi. to preach to them in Gaelic, and to teach and catechise the Highlandchildren in English, had applied, the preceding year, to the ers. Society in Scotland for propagating Christian Knowledge, to grant a commission to such a minister, who should likewise act as one of their missionaries for instructing the native Indians, and to allow him a salary for some years, until the colony should be able to maintain him at their sole expense. They farther agreed to give to this missionary and to his successors, in perpetuity, 300 acres of land. The Society accordingly granted a commission to Mr. John Macleod, a native of the Isle of Sky, with a salary of £50 sterling. Oglethorpe, about this time, began to fortify his colony. At Oglethorpe
of fortifies one place, called Augusta, a fort was erected on the banks of
Georgia. Savannah river. On an island near the mouth of the river Alatamaha, another fort, with 4 regular bastions, was erected, and several pieces of cannon were mounted on it; and there a town, called Frederica, was regularly laid out and built. Ten
1 Hewatt, ii. 45. Univ. Hist. xl. 459. Brit. Domin. ii. 157. M'Call says, that the addition to the population, in 1735, at the trustees' expense, was 81; principally Saltzburghers, who joined their countrymen at Ebenezer; that 2500 acres of land were granted that year to the poor, and 1900 to such persons as came over on their own account; and that the contributions for that year amounted to £31,416. 78. 7d. sterling. Hist. Georgia, i. 49. After this period, several adventurers, both from Scotland and Germany, followed their countrymen, and added strength to the province.
2 Account of the Society in Scotland for propagating Christian Knowledge. Edin. 1774. This mission was supported till the year 1740, when the greatest part of the inhabitants of this colony having been cut off in the expedition against the Spaniards at St. Augustine, Mr. Macleod left Georgia.
3 Historians do not precisely agree in the time of the subsequent events.
4 The island, on which Frederica was built, was St. Simon's. This town appears to have been, at some period, very well built and populated. At what time, or for what reasons, it was at length principally deserted by its inhabitants, I have not been able to learn. In 1789 I was at Frederica, and then made the following remarks : “ There are very considerable remains here of the military works of general Oglethorpe. A considerable part of the old fort, which was built of tabby work (a mixture of lime and shells) is still standing; the walls of a number of old buildings of tabby work are standing also. The cement is singularly good. About a quarter of a mile from the town is an ancient burying place. It is entirely overgrown with bushes and trees. A very considerable number of monuments are to be seen here. They are built of brick; and the outside of them is overlaid with tabby work. Most of them are greatly concealed by trees and bushes. We searched very diligently after inscriptions, but found none, excepting one that was rudely scratched on the tabby work of one of the monuments. This was barely “ 1762," which I take to be a spurious date, as the town, so far as I can learn, became in a manner desolate some years before this."
1738. regiment of 600 men, for the protection of the southern frontiers
of the British dominions in America. On his arrival, he held bis head quarters at Frederica ; but raised forts on some islands lying nearer the Spaniards, particularly on Jekyl and Cumberland. The maintenance of friendship with the Indian nations was of great importance, that in any emergency he might have their assistance. During his absence, the Spaniards had made several attempts to seduce the Creeks, who were much attached to Oglethorpe ; and, at the time of his arrival, some of the Creek chiefs were at St. Augustine. When they returned, they found an invitation from general Oglethorpe to all the chieftains to meet him at Frederica. A number of the head warriors immediately set out to meet him at the place appointed; where the general thanked them for their fidelity, made them many valuable presents, and renewed with them the treaty of friendship and alli
ance. Attempt to No means were neglected by the Spaniards to prevent the assassinate establishment of British colonies on the southern frontier. Find
ing means to corrupt an English soldier, who had been in the Spanish service, a mutiny through his influence was excited in Oglethorpe's camp, and a daring attempt made to assassinate the general ; but his life was almost miraculously preserved, and the
principal conspirators were shot. Insurrec Another and more dangerous effort of Spanish policy was, to
e attempt a seduction of the negroes of South Carolina ; who now
amounted to the formidable number of 40,000. Liberty and protection had long been promised and proclaimed to them by the Spaniards at St. Augustine ; and emissaries had been sent among them, to persuade them to fly from slavery to Florida.? The influence of these measures was such as might have been expected. An insurrection of negroes broke out, this year, in the heart of Carolina. A number of them having assembled at Stono, surprised and killed two men in a ware house, from which they took" guns and ammunition ; chose a captain ; and, with colours and drums, began a march toward the southwest, burning every house, and killing every white person in their way, and compelling the negroes to join them. Governor Bull, returning to Charlestown from the southward, and meeting them armed, hastened out of their way, and spread the alarm. It soon reached Wiltown, where a large presbyterian assembly was attending
tion of negroes in Carolina
1 Hewatt, ii, 67, 68. Salmon, Chronol. History.
2 To such negroes, as should desert, lands were allotted near St. Augustine, where above 500 British slaves had already been received. Salmon. Of these negro refugees the governor of Florida had formed a regiment, appointing officers from among themselves, allowing them the same pay, and clothing them in the same uniform with the regular Spanish soldiers. Hewatt.
divine service. The men, who, according to a law of the 1738. province, had brought their arms to the place of worship, left the women in the church, and instantly marched in quest of the negroes, who, by this time, had become formidable, and spread desolation above 12 miles. Availing themselves of their superior military skill, and of the intoxication of several of the negroes, they attacked the great body of them in an open field, killed some, and dispersed the rest. Most of the fugitives were taken and tried. They who had been compelled to join the conspirators, were pardoned; but all the chosen leaders and first insurgents suffered death.
New Inverness, in Georgia, was settled by highlanders, of the New Invercity and province of that name in the north of Scotland. They ness. were conducted to this place by captain William Mackintosh, by order of the procurator of Georgia, captain George Dunbar.
A college was founded, this year, at Princeton, in New Jersey, College at and called Nassau Hall.3 New Jersey contained 43,388 white Princeton. inhabitants, and 3981 slaves.
The town of Newport, in Rhode Island, contained 7 worship- Churches in ping assemblies. At Portsmouth there was a large society of R. Island. quakers. In the other 11 towns in the colony there were 25 worshipping assemblies. In the 9 towns on the main land there were 8 baptist churches, 8 quaker meeting houses, 4 episcopal, and 3 congregational churches.5
Winnesimmet, or Romney Marsh, which had hitherto been a Chelsea in. district or ward of Boston, was incorporated by the name of co Chelsea.
WorkA workhouse was built in Boston.
house. The colonists of Jamaica having in vain attempted the subjuga- Treaty with tion of the fugitive negroes, who at length intrenched themselves negroes in
Jamaica. in inaccessible places in the mountains; Edward Trelawney, governor of Jamaica, made a treaty with them. It was agreed, that they should remain in a state of freedom ; that they should have the property of 1500 acres of land, northeast of Treļawneytown; that they should have liberty to bunt within 3 miles
1 Hewatt, ü. 70, 73.
2 Alcedo, Tr. Art. INVERNESS. This is described by geographers as situated where Darien now is, and as the same town. During a residence of several years in Georgia, I heard nothing of Inverness, but much of Darien, which was at that time in Liberty county, but which now belongs to Mackintosh county, formed at a later period. The name of Mackintosh was still respectably preserved there.
3 Trumbull, Century Sermon. See A. D. 1746.
7 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iii. 252. A brick building 120 feet long and 2 stories high.
1738. of the English settlements; that they should submit to the orders m of the governor, and assist in defence of the island ; and that
they should deliver up all fugitive negroes. Death of Edmund Quincy, agent at London for settling the boundary E. Quincy. line between Massachusetts and New Hampshire, died in that
city, of the small pox, in the 57th year of his age. The general court of Massachusetts made a donation to his heirs of 1000 acres of land in the town of Lenox, in the county of Berkshire; and caused a monument to be erected to his memory in Bunhill Fields, London.
1739. War de War being declared by Great Britain against Spain, admiral clared Vernon was sent to take the command of a squadron on the against Spain.
West India station, with orders to act against the Spanish do-
place, returned fo Jamaica." Scheme for
or. During this war with Spain, a scheme for taxing the British taxing the colonies was mentioned to Sir Robert Walpole. “I will leave American that,” said the minister, “for some of my successors, who may colonies.
have more courage than I have, and be less a friend to commerce than I am. It has been a maxim with me during my adıninistration, to encourage the trade of the American colonies in the utmost latitude.”5 The scheme of taxation was reserved for a bolder minister, and a more eventful period; but the British
1 Salmon, Chron. Hist. Raynal. vi. 345—348; but he says, in 1739.
2 Quincy's Life of Josiah Quincy. The late President Adams told me, that Mr. Quincy, had he not been a Dissenter, would have been interred in Westminster Abbey.
3 The English colonies, but chiefly Jamaica, had carried on a contraband trade with the settlements in America, which custom had long made them consider as lawful. The court of Madrid concerted measures to stop or at least to check this intercourse ; and, under the pretence of carrying on a contraband trade, many ships were stopped, which, in reality, had a legal destination. England, incensed to find these hostilities carried to an excess inconsistent with the law of nations, after taking measures for redress, declared war against Spain 23 October, 1739. Raynal, v. 90–95. Hewatt, ü. 69, 75.
4 Úniy. Hist. xli. 412, 416.
5 Annual Register for 1765. The minister said more; and the reason assigned for his maxims and measures was recollected, more than twenty years afterward, to his honour. « Nay,” proceeded the minister, “ it has been necessary to pass over some irregularities in their trade with Europe; for by encouraging them to an extensive growing foreign commerce, if they gain £500,000, I am convinced that in two years afterwards full £250,000 of their gains will be in his majesty's exchequer, by the labour and product of this kingdom; as inmense quantities of every kind go thither; and as they increase in their foreign American trade, more of our produce will be wanted. This is taking them more agreeably to their own constitution and ours."
parliament passed an act for more effectually securing and en- 1739. couraging the trade of the British to America ; and an act form naturalizing such protestants and others, as were, or should be, settled in any of his majesty's colonies in America. Oglethorpe, agreeably to a promise which he had made at the Oglethorpe
visits the treaty the last year, went into the Indian country, 500 miles Indians; distant from Frederica. At the town of Coweta, he conferred with the deputies of that town, and with those of the Chickasaws. These deputies, after drinking black broth together, according to the usage of their ancestors, unitedly declared, that they adhered in their ancient love to the king of Great Britain, and to the who renew agreements made in 1733 with the trustees of Georgia. They their covefarther declared, that all the dominions, territories, and lands from the Savannah river to St. John's river and all the islands between them, and from St. John's river to the bay of Apalache, and thence to the mountains, do by ancient right belong to the Creek nation; and that they would not suffer either the Spaniards, or any person, excepting the trustees of the colony of Georgia, to settle on the said lands. While they acknowledged the grant which they had formerly made to the trustees of all the lands on Savannah river, as far as the river Ogeechee, and all the lands along the sea coast as far as St. John's river, and as high as the tide flows, and all the islands as far as the said river, particularly the islands of Frederica, Cumberland, and Amelia ;? they declared, that they reserved to the Creek nation all the land from Pipemaker's Bluff to Savannah, and the islands of St. Catharine, Ossabaw, and Sapelo; and farther declared, that the said lands were holden by the Creek nation as tenants in common. Oglethorpe, as commissioner for George II. declared, that the English should not enlarge or take up any lands, excepting those granted, as above, to the trustees, by the Creek nation; and covenanted, that he would punish any person, who should intrude upon the lands, so reseved by that nation.3
There were, at this time, upward of 100 sail of vessels, be- Newport. longing to Newport, in Rhode Island.4 The yellow fever raged in Charlestown, South Carolina, near Yellow
fever. as violently as in 1732.5 Jeremiah Dummer, of Boston, died at Plastow, in England. Death of
J. Dummer. 1 Salmon, Chronological History.
2 They gave to these islands the names of the king's family, “out of gratitude to him."
3 Univ. Hist. xl. 462. Postlethwayt, i. 360.
6 Eliot and Allen, Biog. Hutchinson, ii. c. 3. He was born in Boston, and educated at Harvard College, where he was graduated in 1699, when, as his president afterward declared (in a Preface to a publication of Mr. Dummer's), he was the best scholar that had been there.” Soon after he took his degree