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Peter, however, made the works of his brother Philip his models, and chose similar subjects for imitation. In some of these he was so successful that even good judges of his brother's works have hesitated in deciding which was the painter. No wonder, therefore, that others less skilful should be deceived. Though his figures and animals are in general well drawn, they are not so correct as those of Philip, and do not equal his ease and vivacity in action. Neither is the colouring so pure and transparent; and occasionally there is a dusky redness, such as appears in some of his brother's earliest pictures. Still, in his farriers' work-shops, and in his country sports, these blemishes are not so apparent as in his hunting and hawking pieces. He was born at Haerlem in 1625, and died in 1683.

JOHN (properly Jan) WOUWERMAN, brother of the preceding, was born at Haerlem in 1628.

It is generally supposed that he was instructed in the art by his elder brother, Philip, from the strong resemblance in the colouring and handling which several of his pictures bear to those of Philip's earlier works. He painted winter scenes, views on canals, and barren heaths, which he made lively and interesting by the introduction of horses and figures well drawn, spiritedly touched, and painted with a broad, free pencil. Such pictures are generally attributed, by dealers of no character, to the pencil of Philip: it would be well if no worse were palmed on the confiding purchaser for the work of that master. John Wouwerman died in 1666.

JAN VAN BREDA, born at Antwerp in 1683, was an imitator of several masters, particularly of Jan Breughel and Philip Wouwerman. By copying and attentively studying the pictures of the latter, he succeeded, perhaps better than any other artist of his day, in imitating his manner in skirmishes, battles, and fairs. His penciling is free and spirited; his figures well drawn, and skilfully arranged; the skies, in his imitations of Wouwerman, have the grey tints observable in that master's third manner, though without their delicacy. In other pictures he adopts the gaudy colours of his first love, Breughel.

JAN LINGELBACH may be named as one who sometimes approached closely to the manner of Wouwerman : but it is only in his hunting and hawking subjects that he does so. In these the cavaliers, the ladies, horses, and attendants, at first glance appear to be of the same parties so gracefully brought on the scene by his contemporary; they are painted with great care, as though the artist supposed that comparison might arise by the similarity. They are by no means plagiarisms ; the landscape part of the picture, the buildings, and other accessories, are entirely in his own manner, which differs widely from that of Wouwerman.

JAN VAN HUGTENBURG, or HUCHTENBURG, born at Haerlem in 1646, was an admirable painter of battles, particularly skirmishes of cavalry. Though he had been a scholar of Thomas Wyke, and coadjutor of Vander Meulen, he made the combats of Wouwerman his models of imitation in his smaller pictures, both in the ordonnance and style of execution. In these imitations he is


successful ; there is no servility; the drawing is correct, the actions of the horses and combatants spirited, and the colouring clear and harmonious. They have, however, so much of his own manner that they are not likely to deceive, and may be considered as having been painted in a spirit of artistic rivalry, as they are proofs of his admiration of Wouwerman's talents.

CHARLES VAN FALENs, born at Antwerp in 1684, died at Paris in 1733. He devoted himself entirely to the imitation of the subjects painted by Wouwerman, and, so far as his ability permitted, to the copying of his style and manner. He shows much tact in his colouring and handling, and would have been more considered had he exhibited less of the copyist. Some of his pictures have the monogram of Wouwerman, put on probably by some unprincipled dealer ; against this deception the inexperienced amateur should be on his guard.

AUGUSTUS QUERFURT, a painter of battle pieces, was a pupil of Rugendas, but imitated several other masters in his skirmishes of cavalry, encampments, and hunting subjects: in some he was successful, but his attempts at imitating Wouwerman are failures. He was, however, not a bad painter, and there is sufficient merit in his pictures to justify ranking him as an analogist. He was born at Wolfenbuttel in 1696, and died at Vienna in 1761.

EMANUEL MURANT has been placed by several writers among the scholars of Wouwerman, but this is not supported by the evidence of his works; he may be cited rather as an analogist of Vander Heyden, from the subjects he painted, and the elaborate execution of his buildings.

BARENT Gaal, or Gael, is often quoted as a scholar of Wouwerman, but his claim to that distinction is very doubtful. He painted similar subjects to that great master, such as battles, fairs, and hunting pieces, and supplied horses and figures to the landscapes of other masters, in all of which he exhibits considerable skill as a draughtsman and colourist ; but there is no similarity to the style of his supposed instructor. He was born at Haerlem in 1650, and died in 1703.

JAN VANDER HEYDE, OR HEYDEN. This extraordinary painter was born at Gorcum in 1637; his father was a glass-stainer, and took particular care of the instruction of his son in drawing, in order to qualify him for the same profession. The knowledge of perspective, which he acquired in the course of his studies, however, induced him to devote more attention to architectural subjects than to those generally represented on illuminated windows. Having qualified himself by drawing accurately such buildings in his native town as pleased his fancy, and perfected himself in the knowledge and use of colours, he visited all the principal cities of Holland and Belgium to depict the nobler erections, public and private, to be found in those places, and the perspective views of their streets, their canals, and the neighbouring villages. The accurate minuteness with which all these objects were delineated would have awakened admiration only at the excessive labour of the artist, had he not added to his work the beauty of colour in all the suavity of which it is capable. The delicate lightness of his penciling coincided with the microscopic objects; the colours melt and blend with each other, and the delusive chiaroscuro, heightening the charm, gives force and vigour to every part, making it true to nature. The beauty of his skies, whether clouded or serene, or illumined by sunshine, has great attraction. The light-floating silvery vapour relieves the intensity of the azure; or gilded by the sun, enriches by contrast the verdure of his foliage.


He was fortunate in having Adrian Van de Velde for a coadjutor. The greater number of his pictures are embellished with figures and animals by that incomparable painter. These are introduced with so much taste and judgment, that they appear to be the arrangement of the designer of the

The colouring and the penciling so harmonize with the other objects that, to an uninitiated inspector, they may be supposed the work of the same hand. This similarity has induced the belief that Vander Heyden received much previous instruction from his talented friend. A few of his pictures have figures by Eglon Vanderneer, or Lingelbach, and one or two have vessels by William Van de Velde. These additions are a double security to the amateur, as they make the work inimitable. There is a description of about one hundred and fifty pictures by Vander Heyden in Smith's Catalogue Raisonné; a large number when the elaborate execution is considered ; and the amateur will see there the estimation in which they have ever been held, and their increasing value when they occur at public sales. Vander Heyde died at Amsterdam in 1712.


GERARD BERKHEYDE, or BERKHEYDEN, was born at Haerlem in 1645. The subjects of his pictures are, in many respects, similar to those of Vander Heyden. They represent churches and other public buildings in squares and places of general resort; and good perspective views in the principal streets of towns and cities. A favourite object of his pencil was the great church at Haerlem. His drawing and perspective are correct, his penciling broad, his colouring subdued in tone, and he is unimpeachable in his chiaroscuro ; but, with all these good qualities, he is far distant in picturesque effect from Vander Heyden. It is scarcely just to compare them, for the pictures of Berkheyden exhibit no attempt at imitation. The figures in his pictures are by his brother Job, and they accord well both in arrangement and colour. Gerard died in 1693.

EMANUEL MURANT is named among the analogists to Wouwerman, but there is more propriety in placing him with those of Vander Heyden, He studied the same sub

jects, delineated them with the same minuteness, and was equally careful in the colouring and finishing. Though his attention to details is really astonishing, there is no appearance of labour; the whole seems the result of dextrous handling and a facile pencil. Labour there must have been, however skilfully disguised, and this may be concluded from the few pictures we have from his hand. With all their resemblances, there is not much danger of their being mistaken for the work of Vander Heyden; even should such a mistake occur, the amateur will have but little to regret.

J.H. Prins, a comparatively modern artist, painted views of towns in Holland similar to those by Vander Heyden, but by no means equal in colour and execution. In other respects he represents the scene with accuracy, is attentive to the details, and manages the lights and shadows with skill. If he suffers by comparison with Vander Heyden and Berkheyde, he is equal to his contemporaries who attempted the same line of art, and his works will always give pleasure by their picturesque arrangement and effect. He was born at the Hague about the middle of the eighteenth century, and died in the early part of the present.

Jan TEN COMPE, in his best pictures of views of public buildings, approaches very closely to Vander Heyden and Berkheyden. His general representations of cities and villages, with animals and figures, particularly those of the Hague and the neighbouring parts, are very charming. He was born at Amsterdam in 1713, and died in 1761.

B. J. VAN HOVE, a modern Dutch painter, approaches very closely to Vander Heyden in his representations of streets and public buildings. The details are equally minute, the selections equally picturesque: there is a beautiful suavity in his colouring, and great delicacy in the chiaroscuro: the effect is quite illusory. But an artist of his consummate ability should avoid the use of that pernicious and traitorous material called Haerlem blue, if he wishes his pictures to retain their pristine beauty. It is owing to the proper use of ultramarine that the works of Vander Heyden retain their permanency, and their brilliant transparency ; his skies and verdant foliage should never be lost sight of by those who are emulous of being his competitors.

JAN HENDRICKS VERHEYEN, another modern Dutch

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