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is entirely his own. He visited England on the return of Charles the Second, and made sketches of several remarkable places and objects there.

JAN LINGELBACH, born at Frankfort-on-the-Maine in 1625, died in 1687. The Italian scenes painted by Lingelbach bear a strong resemblance to Karel du Jardin both in the handling and colour. The friendship they had formed at Rome naturally led to this; and Lingelbach, being the younger artist, would, though skilful in the profession, avail himself of the beauties of his friend's productions to increase the merit of his own.

JACOB ESSELYNS is supposed by some to have imitated the manner of Karel du Jardin, both in paintings and drawings. His subjects are villages on the banks of rivers, woody landscapes, buildings with magnificent fountains, stag hunts, shipping pieces, and figures,-spiritedly touched, and in a clear tone of colour.

PIETER GERARD VAN Os, mentioned among the imitators of Paul Potter, was equally successful in his imitations of Karel du Jardin. They are to be found in some of the finest collections in Holland

JACOB VAN STRY attempted to imitate the manner of Karel du Jardin, but with very little success.'

JAN VAN NIKKELIN, born at Haerlem in 1649, painted landscapes that partake of the manner of Karel du Jardin, and sometimes pass for his with the uninitiated.

ALBERT CUYP. THERE are but few records of the life of this very eminent painter. He was born at Dort in 1606. He received instruction in the elements of art from his father, Jacob Gerritz Cuyp, who was a respectable painter of portraits ; but no other master is named as having advanced him towards that height of excellence so superior to his father, and perhaps to all others who essayed the subjects which he afterwards produced. It is not certain that he adopted the art as a profession, for it is said that he was in good circumstances ; and it is not probable that the appreciation of his works by his contemporary countrymen would improve his fortune. Be that as it may, he seems to have pursued the art

with ardent attachment; and posterity, in fame at least, has made amends for former neglect. That he had an intuitive genius for painting may be admitted, but he did not arrive at excellence without careful attention to and study of nature; and his progress is marked in the different manners as he advanced. His early pictures are known by heavy colouring, want of aërial gradation, and neat finishing ; these he marked only with his initials. In his second manner the handling is firm and free, the gradations more scientific, the colouring rich and transparent; these he signed with his name. His last manner, on which his great reputation is founded, embodies all the beauties of which the art of painting is capable in the representation of natural objects and atmospheric effects. Astonishment is increased at the seeming indifference with which his works were regarded in Holland, when the great variety of the subjects is considered, and the superlative excellence of all of his latter time. Landscapes and cattle; sea-pieces and river scenes; hunting and battle pieces, horse-fairs; winter amusements; views by moonlight; interiors ; still life and portraits : in fact, every subject that may be supposed to interest the lover of nature and art. It is stated that, in addition to his artistic pursuits, he carried on the business of a brewer; and however his merits as a painter were overlooked by his townsmen, it would seem that his conduct as a citizen was approved by them, and acknowledged by electing him a member of the Common Council. He was living in 1672.They who wish to have knowledge of the labour and great variety of subjects by this very eminent master, should consult Smith's Catalogue Raisonné of the works of the Dutch and Flemish Painters, in which they will find a descriptive account, in Part V. and the Supplement, of upwards of 330 of his known pictures, and other matters relating to them, very interesting and serviceable to the amateur. His best pictures are now of enormous value, and for their merit no price is too great.


JACOB VAN STRY was born at Dort in 1756, and died there in 1815. This artist's imitations and copies of Cuyp's landscapes and cattle are among the best that have been produced. After studying some time at Antwerp under Andrew Lens, he returned to Dort and formed an acquaintance with a picture dealer, who directed his attention to the advantage to be derived from studying and copying the pictures of Cuyp, which were then rising in estimation. Van Stry adopted them as his models, and was so successful that many were sold afterwards as original pictures. He was also employed to introduce figures and cattle in genuine pictures, to improve the composition, as it was supposed, or to please the fancy of the owner: these last are the most puzzling to theinexperienced amateur. Notwithstanding his assiduity, he has in most instances fallen short of the beauty and spirit of his exemplar. He has copied accurately the forms of the animals and other objects in Cuyp's compositions, but the sunny effects and delicate gradations of mingled light and shade, and fine aërial tints, eluded his imitation. There is a harshness and want of transparency in his colouring that betrays him, and makes the light and vapoury atmosphere of the original appear heavy and murky in the translation.

DIONYSIUS VAN DONGEN, also a native of Dort, was a professed copyist of Cuyp, Paul Potter, and Wynants, particularly the first, in which he was very successful. He was born in 1748, and died poor at Rotterdam, where he had for a long time resided, in 1819.

BERNARD VAN KALRAAT, born at Dort in 1650, is said to have been a scholar of Cuyp. He painted cattle and figures on the banks of the Maes in imitation of him, but despairing of arriving at the same excellence, he changed his manner to that of Zaftleven. He died in 1731.

ABRAHAM, or ADAM, VAN BORSUM. The accounts of this painter, who flourished during the last quarter of the seventeenth century, are very confused, but his works show that he was an imitator of several eminent masters. In some of his landscapes he adopted the colouring of Rembrandt, and Arnold Vander Neer; in others he imitated the style of Paul Potter and Albert Cuyp; the works of the last he seems to have studied with great attention. Though the colouring of his pictures in imitation of Cuyp's has generally a darker hue than that master's, it is occasionally brilliant and imposing. There is a very fine example in the rich collection of an eminent Dutch connoisseur, representing cattle at pasture, which in its treatment throughout reminds the observer strongly of Cuyp. The name is sometimes written Van Bossum (but it is believed erroneously); and a recent Dutch writer has named him in two articles as Abraham and Adam van Borsum, though the identity is pretty evident in his works.


THE memoir of Philip Wouwerman, written by Houbraken, contains many improbable circumstances, yet it has been adopted by most of the subsequent writers who have had occasion to refer to his life and works. Apart from these circumstances, there are but few biographical facts to be recorded of this very distinguished and eminently beautiful painter. He was born at Haerlem in 1620; his father, Paul Wouwerman, gave him his first lessons in drawing, and it is more than probable that Peter Verbeeck, of Haerlem, advanced him in composition and colouring. It is certain that his earlier pictures have much of that master's manner; and the hunting parties and halts of travellers, with which Verbeeck enlivened his landscapes, may account in some measure for the predilection of Wouwerman for such subjects. He is afterwards found with Jan Wynants, whether as a scholar or a coadjutor is not certain, though all Dutch writers concerning him say the former. If so, what did that master teach him ? Wynants could not paint figures or animals skilfully ; Wouwerman was an adept, and adorned the landscapes of Wynants with both, remarkably beautiful. Wynants was excellent in landscape painting, and his style was peculiar; but the landscapes of Wouwerman have little or no similarity, unless it may be discovered in a sandy road, or clayey bank, occasionally introduced in some of his later pictures. But it is not intended to deprive Wynants altogether of the credit of having had such a scholar. The circumstance of his so frequently painting figures and animals in his landscapes would tend to enlarge the views of Wouwerman in that department, and Wynants was at all times willing to communicate his knowledge to those around him, and seems to have made friends of all the younger artists of talent that frequented his painting room.

The amateur need not be told of the variety of subjects that employed the pencil of Wouwerman, nor of those in which he more particularly excelled; they are patent to all. Numerous as his pictures are, they all exhibit careful drawing and high finishing. The same figures and animals are reproduced, but varied in the arrangement: a duplicate of a composition by his hand is not known. Three different manners may be observed in his works. His earlier pictures are known by a brown hue, and the somewhat angular forms of the objects; this is named his Bamboccio manner, as bearing a resemblance to the style of Peter de Laer, whose pictures were then in vogue. His second manner retained something of the same tone in the grounds and of foxiness in the clouds ; but the general colouring is clear and brilliant, the penciling broader, and the finishing like enamel. His pictures towards the end of this period have the greatest force, breadth, and effect. His last manner has more of the silvery grey, much esteemed by connoisseurs, and which characterizes some of his most beautiful productions.

Wouwerman died in 1668, at the age of forty-eight. He may be considered the most wonderful of all painters for application and expedition; having produced, as may be seen in Smith’s Catalogue Raisonné, between seven and eight hundred beautifully-finished pictures, the whole the work of his own hand, for in none is there the appearance of another's. Notwithstanding their number, a fine specimen is not attainable but by the opulent; for they are always the object of great competition at public sales.

See note to the article “ WOUWERMAN” in the enlarged edition of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.


PETER WOUWERMAN, a brother of Philip, received his earliest instructions from his father, and afterwards studied under Roland Roghman, a landscape painter, whose manner in that department resembles the dark scenes of Rembrandt.

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