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Adrian Van de Velde in his twentieth year. The variety of his landscape scenery shows that his master's theory in that department was well instilled, though he did not imitate his
Whether it be a meadow, a sequestered part of a wood, or the more extended view of an open country, it is impossible to select with more taste and judgment a scene suitable to the subjects he introduced. His cattle, of whatever description, are true transcripts of nature in their forms and actions: in the latter respect he has no superior. His penciling is light, free, and delicate ; his colouring beautifully clear; his chiaroscuro distributed with truth; his skies generally serene; and his clouds lucid and floating. Sometimes he employed his pencil on the winter amusements of his countrymen, and in the representation is no less happy in depicting the appearance of the season, than in those of the verdant Spring, or the warm hues of Summer. In his hunting pieces may be observed how far he is indebted to the counsels and practice of his friend Wouwerman, but without imitation. The same elegant selections of figures, animals, and accessories are found in both; every object has a more polished air than in those which represent unsophisticated nature. The numerous pictures that exist entirely by his hand, and the many by other painters embellished by his pencil, excite a doubt of the correctness of the dates given of his birth and death. Adrian Van de Velde also painted a few historical and poetical subjects, some of which are much admired for the beautiful penciling and sweetness of the colouring, but are not such general favourites as his landscapes and cattle. Smith's Catalogue Raisonné contains a description of about one hundred and eighty carefully finished pictures, and no doubt there are more to be found, which would give an average of fifteen yearly, from the time he commenced practice on his own account, independent of the very large assistance lent to his artistic friends. The doubt is strengthened by finding the date 1647 on one of his landscapes, which is not credible, if he was born in 1639. The latest date yet noticed is 1671, and it is supposed that he died in 1672.
SCHOLARS, IMITATORS, AND ANALOGISTS OF ADRIAN
VAN DE VELDE.
DIRCK, or THEODORE, VAN BERGEN was the best scholar and happiest imitator of Adrian Van de Velde. He painted with a fuller pencil than his master, and his touch is firm and free. His selection of objects is judicious, and his grouping tasteful.
In addition to cows and sheep, which he painted with an accuracy little inferior to Van de Velde, he frequently introduced an aged horse, and also enriched his landscape with an ornamental building enclustered with trees. He wants, however, the ease and elegance with which Van de Velde depicted his figures and cattle, and is sometimes defective in general harmony, arising from opacity in his shadows, probably the effect of time on his colours. He was born at Haerlem 1645, and died in 1689.
JACOB VANDER Does, the younger, was born at Amsterdam in 1654, and received his earliest instruction from his father, and afterwards from Karel du Jardin ; but it seems that the manner of Adrian Van de Velde was the object of his imitation. The scenery of his landscapes is similar, his cattle in the same style, his sheep remarkably so. Time has deprived the colours of their original brightness, and many of his pictures are become dark and heavy; a circumstance that places a wide interval between him and Van de Velde. He died at Paris in 1691.
PETER VANDER LEEUW, born 1644, died 1705. There is no account of this painter having been a scholar of Adrian Van de Velde, but there is ample evidence that he sedulously studied his pictures. His enthusiasm with regard to them was such that, it is said, he never sat down at his easel without having one before him. No wonder that he attained to an extraordinary degree of facility in imitating what he so much admired, and it is surprising that his pictures do not show more of the copyist. Still his animals, though well drawn and beautifully coloured, have not the correctness of Adrian, as seen in his latter productions, though they may compete with some of his earlier.
JACOB CONINGH, or KONING, a native of Haerlem in 1650, studied under Adrian Van de Velde, and imitated his master's manner so exactly, not only in his landscapes and cattle, but in his penciling, that it often requires more than a superficial inspection to decide which was the painter. The time of his decease is not recorded.
ADRIEN OUDENDYK, born at Haerlem in 1648, was a good painter of landscapes and cattle, but made himself notorious by his plagiarisms of Adrian Van de Velde and others, for which he obtained the name of Rapienus.
KAREL DU JARDIN, OR JARDYN. THERE are but few particulars of the life of this artist; even the date of his birth is uncertain, but the probability is in favour of 1635. He was born at Amsterdam, and placed at an early age in the school of Berchem. He
may sidered as the best scholar of that master, though there is a great difference in the style of their pictures. He seems to have inclined more to that of Paul Potter; for some of his productions strongly resemble that master's in colour and sparkling effect. On leaving the school of Berchem he made a journey to Rome, and, being of a cheerful disposition, he soon joined his artistic countrymen there, and became a member of the Bentivogel Society; a club of painters, who also adopted the title of “ La bande joyeuse.” It was the custom of this society to name the members after some peculiarity of person or costume, and he was designated among “ Barbe de Bouc.” The clear sky of Italy, the beautiful scenery in the vicinity of Rome, and the picturesque habits of the peasantry, became the darling objects of his study; and, though addicted to pleasure, he applied himself with diligence to embodying these in the charming compositions which have given such celebrity to his name. years' residence in Italy, he returned to his native country; but whether from a restless disposition, or some other cause of a domestic nature, he had a yearning to return to the more congenial scenes of his artistic pursuits. He joined his former connexions there, after an absence of about eight years, and was received with the same distinction as heretofore; his works were coveted, and he was enabled to live in a superior style, and indulge his natural love of pleasure. From some motive, not accounted for, he was induced to visit Venice, where, after about a year's residence, he was seized with a fit of indigestion, and died in 1678.
It is difficult to say whether Karel du Jardin succeeded best in landscape, cattle, or figures, he is so excellent in each; and these, when blended in composition with a fluent pencil, under the aspect of lucid and brilliant skies, diversified with floating silvery clouds, are altogether so charming, that critical distinctions lose authority in admiration of the whole. It may be remarked that this artist employed two manners, at different periods ; in one he used a full pencil and a sharp touch, like Paul Potter; in the other his touch is delicate, and his colouring tender, mingled with cool silvery hues.
The amateur, to increase his knowledge of this master's style of drawing, should examine with attention his etchings of animals and figures, contained in about fifty pieces; they are remarkable for correctness and spirited execution.
In Smith's Catalogue Raisonné there are descriptions of one hundred and fifty pictures by this very highly esteemed artist,
-a large number by one whose life was so short, but not half sufficient to satisfy the desire of connoisseurs of raste to possess a specimen ; which is evinced by the prices they obtain whenever offered for public competition.
SCHOLARS AND ANALOGISTS OF KAREL DU JARDIN.
HENRY, or HENDRIK, MOMMERS, is classed by several writers among the scholars of Karel du Jardin ; it is
probable they were acquainted in Italy, where both resided some time.
Mommers resembles du Jardin chiefly in his skies, and occasionally in the figures of the ass and goat; his style, in other respects, approaches nearer to that of Wee
He was born at Haerlem in 1650, and died in 1708. JAN ASSELYN, born in 1610, died in 1660, is mentioned as an imitator of Karel du Jardin. As he resided in Italy several
years, and studied and painted many of the beautiful scenes in the vicinity of Rome, there can be little doubt that the two artists were well acquainted, and frequently observed each other's productions. It is not surprising studied the same objects, that there should be occasional similarity between them. It must not be supposed in placing Jan Asselyn among the analogists of Du Jardin that his own great merits are overlooked; for he was an artist of fine taste, and critical discernment of the beauties of nature, as his selections, penciling, clearness of colouring, and management of chiaroscuro, rank him in the class of the best landscape and animal painters.
BERNARD, or BARENT, GRAAT, born at Amsterdam in 1628, and died there in 1709. He was an artist of versatile talents, and distinguished himself in various branches of painting; historical, conversation pieces, landscapes, and animals. He was rather the imitator of Peter de Laer, called Bamboccio, than of Karel du Jardin. He was instructed by his uncle in landscape and animal painting, and was very diligent in his studies. The scenery of his landscapes is well selected, and the figures and animals correctly drawn and touched with spirit; he particularly excelled in painting goats and sheep, and it is in these he mostly resembles Du Jardin.
WILLIAM VAN ROMEyn is supposed to have been instructed by Karel du Jardin, but there is no authority for the fact. Berchem, Adrian Van de Velde, and Karel du Jardin, were his contemporaries, and his productions partake somewhat of each, but without the appearance of copying or plagiarism: occasionally they resemble Andrew Both in the buildings, and have the Italian air of Jan Both in the landscape. His skies and cattle are the portions of his pictures that recall the images of Karel du Jardin, but they equally remind the observer of Adrian Van de Velde, or Berchem. As there is no record of his life and practice, it can only be conjectured that he lived at the same time, and on good terms, with the before-named artists, and studied either under them or with the same models, namely, the works and appearances of nature. His pictures deserve to be better known than they are.
WILLIAM SCHELLINKS, or SCHELLINGS, born at Amsterdam in 1632, died in 1678. It is probable that this excellent artist formed an acquaintance with Karel du Jardin and Jan Lingelbach in Italy, as he adopted the style of each in many of his pictures. His peasantry and cattle resemble that of du Jardin ; his Italian sea-ports, with figures in various costumes, that of Lingelbach. In the views and seapieces, which he painted on his return to Holland, the style