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vapours from deep glens and rocky chasms, are represented with the truth of nature; his evening scenes have the full glow of summer. No painter, perhaps with the exception of Cuyp, ever excelled him in sunshine effects. Pynaker, like several other eminent Dutch landscape painters, was employed in decorating the interiors of noble mansions on canvas, in lieu of tapestry ; such pictures were of large dimensions, frequently twelve feet in height, and of corresponding breadth, according to the size of the apartments. This would naturally occupy much of his time, and will account for the small number, comparatively, of his cabinet pictures. Many of the former were eminently fine in composition, and free and masterly in execution, but were not suited for any other place than that which they first occupied. Smith, in his Catalogue Raisonné of the Dutch and Flemish painters, describes about seventy cabinet pictures only, after all his researches, which appears but a small number from a master whose pencil was so facile. Pynaker, like Hackaert, seems to have had no direct imitators, copyists, or analogists; probably his Italian gusto was not to the taste of those artists who had never beheld nature's scenes beyond the confines of Holland. Neither is the name of any scholar recorded as having received instruction from him.


THIERRY VAN DALENS, who was born at Amsterdam in 1688, painted landscapes and cattle, and enriched them with ruins in the manner of Pynaker; so far he may be considered an analogist, for his pictures are very clever in composition and execution.

GERARD VAN NIMEGUEN, who lived nearly a century after Pynaker, occasionally adopted his manner in painting mountainous scenery: he was a general and a pleasing imitator of the great Dutch landscape painters.

PAUL POTTER. This distinguished animal painter was born at Enkhuysen in 1625. The only instruction he received in the art was from his father, Peter Potter, who painted landscapes with

scriptural subjects, and some few, it is suspected, with animals, which it has been attempted to pass as early works of his son, owing to the signature. Paul soon surpassed his father, and was considered a prodigy in painting at the age of fifteen. Henceforward nature was his only tutor, and her works his only models. To them he devoted his entire attention, whether in studying the animal form, the variations of the atmosphere, or the changing aspect of the landscape under its influence. But it is in the animals that he is allowed to have surpassed in figure, in natural action, and expression, all his predecessors, and in some instances more than equalled the best of his contemporaries. When about twenty years of age, he removed to the Hague, where he married, and remained about six years; here he formed acquaintance with many persons of distinction, and was particularly noticed for his talent and agreeable conversation by Maurice, Prince of Orange, who frequently honoured him with visits, and became his liberal patron. Whether this preference, or the superiority of his talents, excited the envy of other artists, it seems that he suffered considerable annoyance from some of them, and therefore complied with the pressing invitations of the Burgomaster Tulk, and went in 1652 to reside at Amsterdam. Here he continued his studies with the greatest assiduity, devoting his time from sunrise to sunset, regardless of seasons, to the delineation of those objects of nature which came within the scope of his profession. Such unremitted application had the usual effect on a constitution naturally delicate; he was attacked by a pulmonary disease, which terminated his life in 1654, in the 29th year of his age.

Although Potter was true to nature in the representation of the landscapes of his country, they were the subordinate parts of his pictures; he took only those pastoral scenes where cattle could be shown in their natural state browsing or ruminating. The muscular form of the sturdy bull with his threatening aspect, the more attenuated figure of the cow, placidly grazing, are given with anatomical exactness; and the sheep, the ass, and the goat, are true types of nature in their forms and expressions. In his best pictures the colouring is clear and transparent, and the execution firm and finished, without appearance of labour. Potter

painted other subjects besides pastoral scenes, and exhibits mastery in all, but the former have always been the favourites. The amateur will do well to consult Smith's Catalogue Raisonné, vol. v., where he will find ample descriptions of the master's works, and see the estimation in which they have ever been held from the time of their production.

SCHOLARS AND IMITATORS OF PAUL POTTER. KAREL DU JARDIN, or JARDIN, is said by some writers to have been a pupil of Paul Potter; but that may be doubted, as Potter died when Du Jardin was but 14 years old. Many of his pictures, however, approach so near in colour and handling to those of Potter, as to justify the supposition that he had the works of that master in his mind's eye, and made them and nature his examples.

HERMAN ZACHTLEVEN, or SAFTLEVEN, born at Rotterdam in 1609, died at Utrecht in 1685, imitated Paul Potter with considerable success in his manner of painting pigs; these he drew with the greatest truth, and finished with a dexterity of handling little inferior to his prototype. His pictures suffer, however, in estimation by their too great tendency to a brown hue. · EMANUEL MURANT is named among the imitators of Paul Potter, as having painted sheep, goats, and pigs, in his landscapes, bearing a striking resemblance to those by the pen. cil of that master. Though said to be a pupil of Philip Wouwerman, he did not adopt his subjects, but painted buildings and views in Holland, which he finished with great neatness and accuracy. The animals were introduced as accessories to enliven his landscapes. The date of his birth is uncertain; he died at Lewarde, in Friesland, in 1700. See imitators of Vander Heyde.

ALBERT KLOMP has been thought to be a pupil and imitator of Paul Potter; but that cannot be true, as his pictures bear date from 1602 to 1622. He may, therefore, be considered an original painter who made choice of some of the objects which Paul Potter afterwards adopted, namely, the works of nature. There is remarkable similarity in the countenances of the cows of Klomp and those of Paul Potter, especially when ruminating; and the penciling of the

sheep of Potter's earlier pictures is almost identical with that of Klomp.

ADAM VAN BORSUM painted landscapes and cattle, in which he imitated Paul Potter and other artists. He flourished in 1666. See also Imitators of Cuyp.

JAN LE Ducq, born at the Hague in 1636, died in 1695, is supposed to have been a pupil of Paul Potter, from the skilful manner in which he painted and etched dogs, with a spirit resembling that master. He, however, changed his subjects, after having served in the army, and painted corpsde-garde and conversation pieces, which obtained him a great reputation.

THEODORE RAPHAEL KAMPHUYSEN, or CAMPHUYSEN, is said to have painted in the style or manner of Paul Potter; but it is difficult to reconcile this with the time when he is said to have been born, namely, in 1586, being 39 years previous to the birth of Paul Potter. One picture, in particular, has been adduced by a writer of great credit, as being the work of Camphuysen, though it had been in a public gallery for a number of years designated as the work of Paul Potter, and was exhibited as such among the spoils in the Louvre, in the year 1814. If this be correct, then the pictures now known to the public under the name of Camphuysen, must be by another artist of the same name, or the painter of the disputed picture must have materially altered his style ; for the pictures now attributed to Campbuysen bear no resemblance to those of Paul Potter.

PIETER GERARD VAN Os, born at the Hague in 1776, was avowedly an imitator of Paul Potter. He was an excellent painter, and his pictures enrich some of the finest collections in Holland. They were not intended to deceive, but to show his skill in imitating nature in the same manner as one of her finest expositors. He died in 1839.

JAN KOBELL, born at Utrecht in 1782, died in 1814. Though this artist made Paul Potter's works his models, his principal studies were the works of nature; he must therefore be considered rather as an analogous painter than as an imitator of that master. The extreme beauty of his productions has already induced comparison with Paul Potter, and probably time will make Kobell his most formidable rival.

W. I. L. SPOOR, was a scholar of Henry Antonissen, at Antwerp. In his early pictures he imitated the manner of his master; subsequently he employed himself in copying the pictures of Paul Potter, and other cattle painters of the Dutch School.

JACOB JANSON, who resided at Leyden about the year 1785, painted landscapes with cattle, in which he imitated the style of Paul Potter. They are very pleasing pictures, but, like those of Spoor, their appearance is too modern to deceive. They are carefully painted with a neat pencil and fresh colouring, and have a natural rural air.

JACOB VANDER DOEs, the elder, in his cattle, particularly goats and sheep, imitated Paul Potter. He was an excellent landscape painter, but unfortunately, his pictures, in many instances, have become dark and gloomy, and consequently much deteriorated in value.

ADRIAN VAN DE VELDE. This highly distinguished landscape and cattle painter was born, it is said, at Amsterdam in 1639, and was placed at an early age under the tuition of Jan Wynants. In this school he had the good fortune to meet with Philip Wouwerman, and their similarity of taste soon attached them to each other. It is probable that Wouwerman, being so much the elder, perceiving his young friend's partiality for animal painting, in which Wynants was not a proficient, took him under his especial care, and directed his course in the study of those objects in which he afterwards so pre-eminently excelled. Be that as it may, he advanced rapidly both in the theory and practice of the art, and drew a remark from the wife of Wynants that showed her knowledge of painting and her discrimination; “ You may imagine,” she said to her husband, “ that you have in this youth a mere scholar under your tuition, but be assured that he will soon become your master.” Wynants was too honourable to feel jealous of the improving talents of his pupil, and did not relax in his endeavours to enrich his mind with all the knowledge of the art that he himself possessed. Master and pupil became attached friends, and perhaps coadjutors; for there are landscapes by Wynants embellished with cattle and figures by

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