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right to the poor Caffre, his wife, his children, and his goods. But mark how the slave-tradc deepens even the fearful gloom

of bigotry! These Mohammedans are by no means zealous -)

to enlighten their Pagan neighbors—they do not wish them to come to a knowledge of what they consider the true re.

ligion-lest they should forfeit the only ground, on which it

they can even pretend to the right of driving them by thousands to the markets of Kano and Tripoli. This is precisely like our own conduct. We

say groes are so ignorant that they must be slaves; and we insist upon keeping them ignorant, lest we spoil them for slaves.

The same spirit that dictates this logic to the Arab, teaches ]

it to the European and the American :-Call it what you please—it is certainly neither of heaven nor of earth.

When the slave-ships are lying on the coast of Africa, canoes well armed are sent into the inland country, and after a few weeks they return with hundreds of negroes, tied fast with ropes.

Sometimes the white men lurk among the bushes, and seize the wretched beings who incautiously venture from their homes; sometimes they paint their skins as black as their hearts, and by this deception suddenly sur. prise the unsuspecting natives ; at other times the victims are decoyed on board the vessel, under some kind pretence or other, and then lashed to the mast, or chained in the hold, Is it not very natural for the Africans to say" devilish white ?"

All along the shores of this devoted country, terror and distrust prevail. The natives never venture out without arms, when a vessel is in sight, and skulk through their own fields, as if watched by a panther. All their worst

passions are called into full exercise, and all their kindlier hi

feelings smothered. Treachery, fraud and violence desolate the country, rend asunder the dearest relations, and pollute the very fountains of justice. The history of the negro, whether national or domestic, is written in blood.

Had half the skill and strength employed in the slave-trade hi

been engaged in honorable commerce, the native princes

would long ago have directed their energies towards clear. ol 이

ing the country, destroying wild beasts, and introducing the arts and refinements of civilized life. Under such influ. ences, Africa might become an earthly paradise ;—the white man's avarice has made it a den of wolves.

Having thus glanced at the miserable effects of this syshele tem on the condition of Africa, we will now follow the poor

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slave through his wretched wanderings, in order to give some idea of his physical suffering, his mental and moral degradation.

Husbands are torn from their wives, children from their parents, while the air is filled with the shrieks and lamen. tations of the bereaved. Sometimes they are brought from a remote country; obliged to wander over mountains and through deserts; chained together in herds ; driven by the whip; scorched by a tropical sun ; compelled to carry heavy hales of merchandise ; suffering with hunger and thirst; worn down with fatigue; and often leaving their bones to whiten in the desert. A large troop of slaves, taken by the Sultan of Fezzan, died in the desert for want of food. In some places, travellers meet with fifty or sixty skeletons in a day, of which the largest proportion were no doubt slaves, on their way to European markets.

Sometimes the poor creatures refuse to go a step further, and even the lacerating whip cannot goad them on; in such cases, they become the prey of wild beasts, more merciful than white men.

Those who arrive at the seacoast, are in a state of despe. ration and despair. Their purchasers are so well aware of this, and so fearful of the consequences, that they set sail in the night, lest the negroes should know when they depart from their native shores. And here the scene becomes almost two harrowing to

But we must not allow our nerves to be more tender than our consciences. The poor wretches are stowed by hundreds, like bales of goods, between the low decks, where filth and putrid air produce disease, madness and sui. cide. Unless they die in great numbers, the slave-captain does not even concern himself enough to fret; his live stock cost nothing, and he is sure of such a high price for what remains at the end of the voyage, that he can afford to lose a good many.

The following account is given by Dr. Walsh, who ac. companied Viscount Strangford, as chaplain, on his embassy to Brazil. The vessel in which he sailed chased a slave-ship; for to the honor of England be it said, she has asked and obtained permission from other governments, to treat as pi. rates such of their subjects as are discovered carrying on this guilty trade north of the equator. Doctor Walsh was an eyewitness of the scene he describes ; and the evidence given, at various times, before the British House of Com.

dwell upon.

mons, proves that the frightful picture is by no means exag. gerated.

• The vessel had taken in, on the coast of Africa, three hundred and thirty-six males, and two hundred and twentysix females, making in all five hundred and sixty-two; she had been out seventeen days, during which she had thrown overboard fifty-five. They were all inclosed under grated hatchways, between decks. The space was so low, and they were stowed so close together, that there was no possibility of lying down, or changing their position, night or day.

The greater part of them were shut out from light and air; and this when the thermometer, exposed to the open sky, was standing, in the shade on our deck, ai eighty-nine degrees.

“ The space between decks was divided into two compart. ments, three feet three inches high. Two hundred and twenty-six women and girls were thrust into one space two hundred and eighty-eight feet square; and three hundred and thirty-six men and boys were crammed into another space eight hundred feet square; giving the whole an aver. age of twenty-three inches; and to each of the women not more than thirteen inches; though several of them were in a state of health, which peculiarly demanded pity.-As they were shipped on account of different individuals, they were branded like sheep, with the owner's marks of different forms; which, as the mate informed me with perfect indif. ference, had been burnt in with red-hot iron. Over the hatchway stood a ferocious looking fellow, the slave-driver of the ship, with a scourge of many-twisted thongs in his hand; whenever he heard the slightest noise from below, he shook it over them, and seemed eager to exercise it.

“ As soon as the poor creatures saw us looking down at them, their melancholy visages brightened up. They perceived something of sympathy and kindness in our looks, to which they had not been accustomed ; and feeling in. stinctively that we were friends, they immediately began to shout and clap their hands. The women were particularly excited. They all held up their arms, and when we bent down and shook hands with them, they could not contain their delight; they endeavored to scramble upon their knees, stretching up to kiss our hands, and we understood they knew we had come to liberate them. Some, however, hung down their heads in apparently hopeless dejection: some

were greatly emaciated ; and some, particularly children, seemed dying. The heat of these horrid places was so great, and the odor so offensive, that it was quite impossible to enter them, even had there been room.

The officers insisted that the poor, suffering creatures, should be admitted on deck to get air and water.

This was opposed by the mate of the slaver, who (from a feeling that they deserved it,) declared they should be all mur. dered. The officers, however, persisted, and the poor beings were all turned out together. It is impossible to conceive the effect of this eruption--five hundred and seventeen fel. low-creatures, of all ages and sexes, some children, some adults, some ·ld men and women, all entirely destitute of clothing, scrambling out together to taste the luxury of a little fresh air and water. They came swarming up, like bees from a hive, till the whole deck was crowded to suffocation from stem to stern ; so that it was impossible to imagine where they could all have come from, or how they could have been stowed away. On looking into the places where they had been crammed, there were found some children next the sides of the ship, in the places most remote from light and air; they were lying nearly in a torpid state, after the rest had turned out. The little creatures seemed indifferent as to life or death ; and when they were carried on deck, many of them could not stand. After enjoying for a short time the unusual luxury of air, some water was brought; it was then that the extent of their sufferings was exposed in a fearful manner. They all rushed like maniacs towards it. No entreaties, or threats, or blows, could restrain them ; they shrieked, and struggled, and fought with one another, for a drop of this precious liquid, as if they grew rabid at the sight of it. There is nothing from which slaves in the mid-passage suffer so much as want of water.

It is sometimes usual to take out casks filled with sea-water as bal. last, and when the slaves are received on board, to start the casks, and re-fill them with fresh. On one occasion, a ship from Bahia neglected to change the contents of their casks, and on the mid-passage found to their horror, that they were filled with nothing but salt water. All the slaves on board perished! We could judge of the extent of their sufferings from the afflicting sight we now saw.

When the poor crea. tures were ordered down again, several of them came, and pressed their heads against our kness, with looks of the

greatest anguish, with the prospect of returning to the hor rid place of suffering below.”

Alas! the slave-captain proved by his papers that he con. fined his traffic strictly to the south of the Line, where it was yet lawful; perhaps his papers were forged ; but the Eng. lish officers were afraid to violate an article of the treaty, which their government had made with Brazil. Thus does cunning wickedness defeat benevolence and justice in this world! Dr. Walsh continues: “ With infinite regret, there. fore, we were obliged to restore his papers to the captain, and permit him to proceed, after nine hours' detention and close investigation. It was dark when we separated, and the last parting sounds we heard from the unhallowed ship, were the cries and shrieks of the slaves, suffering under some bodily infliction."

I suppose the English officers acted politically right; but not for the world's wealth, would I have acted politically right, under such circumstances !*

Arrived at the place of destination, the condition of the slave is scarcely less deplorable. They are advertised with cattle; chain cd in droves, and driven to market with a whip; and sold at auction, with the beasts of the field. They are treated like brutes, and all the influences around them con spire to make them brutes.

“Some are employed as domestic slaves, when and how the owner pleases; by day or by night, on Sunday or other days, in any measure or degree, with any remuneration or with none, with what kind or quantity of food the owner of the human beast may choose. Male or female, young or old, weak or strong, may be punished with or without reason, as caprice or passion may prompt. When the drudge does not suit, he may be sold for some inferior purpose,

like a horse that has seen his best days, till like a worn-out beast he dies, unpitied and forgotten! Kept in ignorance of the holy precepts and divine consolations of Christianity, he remains a Pagan in a Christian land, without even an object

* Dr. Walsh's book on Brazil was published in 1331. Ile says; "Notwithstanding the benevolent and persevering exertions of England, this horrid traffic in human flesh is nearly as extensively carried on as ever, and under circumstances perhaps of a more revolting character. The very shifts at evasion, the necessity for concealment, and the desperate hazard, cause inconvenience and sufferings to the poor creatures in a very aggravated degree.”

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