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governments have a mutual interest in evaluating, planning, developing, and managing the Nation's water resources. The immense size of the task of appraising the Nation's water resources precludes accomplishment by Federal efforts only. Similarly, State and local agencies working independently cannot relate to the sizable regional aspects of the hydrologic system. Cooperation though this Program, under which the Survey matches funds provided by State agencies, provides an economical and comprehensive system for assessing water resources. Many water problems begin at the local level. Recognizing this, the Survey has cooperative agreements with all States under which each party funds one-half the cost of financing studies of water resources.
Most projects under the Cooperative Program respond to a recognized problem or define a potential one. In addition to data collection, programs may focus on water use and availability, the impact of man's activities on the hydrologic environment, and energy-related water demands which may strain available water supplies. In emergency situations, such as drought or flood, events are monitored, and the data accumulated under the Cooperative Program prove invaluable.
Assistance to Other Federal Agencies
With funds transferred from other Federal agencies, the Geological Survey performs a wide variety of work related to the specific needs of each agency.
Non-Federal Reimbursable Program
Non-Federal reimbursable funds are unmatched funds received by the Geological Survey from State and local agencies in situations where there is both Federal and State interest in investigation of water resources but where matching Federal funds are either unavailable or are not otherwise applicable to cost sharing.
Office of Water Data Coordination
A major responsibility was assigned to the Survey in 1964 when it was designated the lead agency for coordinating water-data acquisition activities of all Federal agencies; activities include those that produce information on streams, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and ground water. This coordination effort minimizes duplication of data collection among Federal agencies and strengthens the data base and ts accessibility.
Budget and Personnel
At the end of fiscal year 1982, the Water Resources Division employed 2,923 full-time personnel. This number included scientists and engineers representing all fields of hydrology and related sciences, technical specialists, and administrative, secretarial, and clerical employees. An additional 1,445 permanent part-time and intermittent employees assisted in the work of the Division.
The$186.6 million obligated in 1982 for water resources investigation activities came from the following sources:
1. Direct Congressional appropriations.
2. Congressional, State and local appropriations for 50-50 funding in the FederalState Cooperative Program.
3. Funds transferred from other Federal agencies.
4. Funds transferred from State and local agencies.
In the following sections, highlights from some of the major programs are described.
The Federal-State Cooperative Water
The Federal-State Cooperative Program, started in 1895, continues to be the largest part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s waterresources activity. In fiscal year 1982, this working partnership with 750 State, regional, and local agencies totaled about $88 million for hydrologic investigations and data collection in every State, Puerto Rico, and several of the territories. Details of the work and funding, which call for 50-50 matching, are arranged at State and local levels by representatives of the Survey and the cooperating agencies. The work is directed by the Survey, principally by Survey staff, who are accountable to the cooperating partners.
The process of project selection is a mutual effort whereby the Geological Survey represents national interests, including the needs of other Federal agencies, and the cooperators represent State and local interests. Recognition of water problems as national issues occurs naturally from perspectives pieced together from
widespread Cooperative Program activities. The program concentrates on producing water information of highest priority to the Nation; for example, current concerns regarding ground-water contamination, flood-plain management, and underground waste storage had, as forerunners, a multitude of individual cooperative investigations across the country.
In addition to analytical and interpretive work, the program provides for more than one-half the water resources data collected by the Survey. This includes most of the streamflow information used by the National Weather Service in its flood-forecasting responsibilities. Thus, the Cooperative Program is the foundation for much of the country's water-Resources planning and management. It also serves as a head start on developing approaches to individual water problems before they become national crises. A few of the accomplishments of 1982 are highlighted below.
Acid Mine Discharge in the Kansas-Missouri-Oklahoma Tri-State Area
Lead and zinc have been mined in the tri State (Kansas-Missouri-Oklahoma) area since the late 19th century. Peak production was reached in the 1920's and declined until 1958, when most mining operations were discontinued. Initially, mines were shallow and above the water table. As mining was extended to greater depths, as much as 300 feet below the water table, pumping was required to keep the mines dewatered. The mines became interconnected as the ore was removed so that, when mining and mine dewatering ceased in the mid-1960's, the entire group of mines flooded. Water levels rose in the mine shafts as water from the surrounding Boone aquifer and from surface streams flowed into the mines.
As the result of a cooperative investigation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey in the mid-1970's, the Geological Survey estimated that acid mine water would eventually begin discharging into Tar Creek. Subsequent monitoring of ground-water levels in the area indicated that this discharge could be expected to occur in the early
1980's. Overflow from the mines began in April 1980. In 1982, because of the extent of the contamination, the Tar Creek area was declared to be the Nation's number one hazardous-waste site by the Environmental Protection Agency.
in addition to discharge into Tar Creek, the Survey noted that there was potential for contamination of the shallow Boone aquifer which contains the mines. Furthermore, it might be possible for water from the mines to move downward to the underlying Roubidoux aquifer, the primary source of drinking water for communities in the area.
The Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, is currently investigating the Roubidoux aquifer to develop information on its hydraulic characteristics, geochemistry, and potentiometric surface. Other investigations, in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Health and Environment and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, are geared to assess further the water quality and the extent of contamination from lead and zinc mines in the respective States. Additional work will be needed to understand fully the hydrologic system in the area, including the flow quantity and quality of water entering and discharging from the mines.
Digital Ground-Water Simulation, Portland, Oregon
The city of Portland, Oregon, derives its water supply from the Bull Run watershed high in the Oregon Cascade Mountains. The present system serves approximately 750,000 people in the greater Portland metropolitan area. Four aquifers near the Columbia River are being developed at a cost of $25 million to provide a supplemental and emergency ground-water supply.
The water in the highly permeable gravel surficial aquifer is nitrate-rich and is connected with the river. In addition, three artesian aquifers have been the target of an exploratory program and will be tapped by about 20 out of 30 production wells, 11 of which have been completed to date. Based on results of geophysical exploration, the Geological Survey believes that an ancient stream channel of considerable thickness lies buried near the eastern part of the Portland well field. If so, the potential for substantial recharge to the aquifers in this area is promising.
The first water delivery, in the amount of 50 million gallons per day, is scheduled for spring 1984. By summer 1985, the well field is expected to be fully developed and capable of producing 100 million gallons per day from both artesian and
water-table aquifers. The well-field pumping station may be available for hydroelectric generation by reversing flow to use 100 million gallons per day directly from the Bull Run surface-water supply. Such a multiple use of facilities could prove cost-effective and, if successful, might enable the recharging of the artesian aquifers by cyclic injection.
The Geological Survey’s cooperative program with the city of Portland calls for development of a three-dimensional mathematical model to project the effects of various pumping rates on water levels in the well field and vicinity. Preliminary model runs show that some interconnection between the Columbia River and the Portland well field exists and that, under sustained pumping, artesian pressures in the aquifer system would drop severely over a wide region. Without recharge, such stress could bring on adverse effects such as dewatering, land subsidence, and downward movement of nitrate-rich ground water from the gravel aquifer. Projections made by using the completed computer model could be used to indicate the most favorable locations for installation of large-capacity wells in these aquifers. Thus, the city of Portland regards the completion of these projections and the final calibration of the model as having considerable significance.
Ground Water in the Greater Atlanta Area, Georgia
The Piedmont physiographic province extends from Alabama to New Jersey east of the Appalachian Mountains and covers thousands of square miles. Because of the anticipated low yields of water to wells, communities and industry in the Piedmont have developed surfacewater sources for supplies. The demand for water, however, is rapidly outstripping the available surface water. The need for an alternate source of supply for the greater Atlanta area led to a ground-water investigation of the Piedmont by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Earth and Water Division of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources.
The investigation indicates that deep wells tapping the Piedmont crystalline rocks may produce sufficient ground water to serve as an alternate source of supply to cities and industry in the Atlanta area. These results, and the criteria developed on the basis of topographic analysis to indicate the possible location of horizontal fractures, may be of value throughout the Piedmont. It is possible that deep-lying horizontal fractures also exist in crystalline metamorphic rocks in other parts of the country. If so, the impact of this investigation may be even greater than anticipated.
The study area comprised 6,000 square miles and covered all or parts of 23 counties. The crystalline rocks underlying the Piedmont are generally considered to be poorly permeable and capable of yielding only small quantities of ground water to wells, usually in the range of 2 to 30 gallons per minute. Such yields are obtained from vertical to near-vertical fractures that are most numerous near the land surface, diminish rapidly in size and number with depth, and are practically nonexistent below depths of 300 feet.
During the investigation, however, many wells were reported to yield from 50 to nearly 500 gallons per minute, but these were unusually deep, some as much as 700 feet. A number of the wells have been producing several hundred gallons per minute for 20 years. Investigation of selected wells by geophysical downhole logging and television cameras revealed horizontal fractures at depth, with some openings seemingly as large as 8 inches. It may be that these horizontal fractures resulted from the release of stress in the crystalline rocks as overlying materials eroded away. The areal extent of individual fractures is still unknown; however, wells as far as 1,000 feet apart are known to tap the same horizontal fracture. There is also evidence that some fractures may extend under an intervening ridge, thus hyraulically connecting adjacent valleys.
Hydrologic Data Collection
Of the 8,000 continuous-record streamflow stations operated by the Geological Survey, some 5,100 were supported by the Cooperative Program in 1982. In addition, intermittent records of streamflow were collected at 6,700 sites, and water-level data were recorded at 680 lakes and reservoirs. Water-quality information was obtained at 6,600 surface-water sites and 7,700 ground-water sites. Groundwater levels, and sometimes pumpage or flow, were measured at 21,000 wells and springs.
The information produced by these activities and the results of similar work in years past are the foundation for analytical and interpretive hydrologic appraisals, water resources planning and management, and problem-oriented research. Activities have been discontinued at some sites and started at others in response to changing needs and priorities. The data are published annually in a series of reports, generally on a State-byState basis.
Hydrologic data are often needed prior to report publication and sometimes more quickly than the 4 to 6 weeks required for the many operations involved in collection, analysis, and processing. Some of the requirements for real-time data include flood warnings, irrigation-water allocations, watersupply forecasting, reservoir management, water-quality monitoring, management of navigational waters, and allocation of urban water supplies. Telemetry of information from remote data-collection sites has been accomplished by telephone and microwave radio, and now advanced electronic and satellite systems are used. The Survey currently operates more than 250 stations from which data are relayed by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. This has proved to be a reliable and, in some instances, cost-effective tool for real-time data acquisition. Any significant expansion of this application depends on a more complete evaluation of the need for and the economic benefits of the system. Rather than collecting data on the basis of standard-time intervals, it may be possible to develop instrumentation that will call for data in
response to preselected changes in river stage, water quality, or other hydrologic characteristics.
In addition to operational improvements at individual sites, the Survey is reviewing its networks of stream-gaging stations to indicate the most cost-effective means of collecting the necessary data within prescribed standards of accuracy. The techniques for these evaluations, which will be carried out on a State-by-State basis, are being modified to accommodate legislative, judicial, and administrative directives, as well as requirements for flood and water-supply forecasting, current-purpose water management, and input to other hydrologic investigations and research. As a result, in the 1980's, some data-collection sites may be discontinued, others will need to be established, and, at selected stations, the parameters measured and the frequency of measurement may be altered.
For 1983, selection of specific activities to be included in the Cooperative Program will consider as highest priority investigations of ground-water contamination, water supply and demand, stream quality, and hydrologic hazards. These topics were identified as being of major national concern through consultation with Federal, State, and local agencies and reflect the judgement of the Geological Survey regarding its role in the water resources field. Other issues, such as acid precipitation, urban hydrology, and assessment of lakes and estuaries, also are considered high priority for new work, but their importance may differ in various parts of the country. The need for additional datacollection sites, as well as improvements in efficiency and cost effectiveness of data networks, will likewise be given careful scrutiny.
The advantages of the program's costsharing arrangement are increasingly evident as funds become tighter. Clearly, the need for water-data and hydrologic investigations and research will be great in the 1980's. The Cooperative Program is one proven way to serve Federal, State, and local interests and to assure the availability of resulting information nationally to all users.
Regional Snow Chemistry Reconnaissance
Concern about the possible environmental effects of acid rain is in the public spotlight. Because the problem is not yet fully understood, it is important to move from the area of speculation into that of scientific research. The U.S. Geological Survey has been part of this effort and is conducting studies related to acid rain and the atmospheric transport and deposition of potentially toxic chemical constituents. A recent investigation by the Geological Survey involved the areal distribution of chemical constituents deposited from the atmosphere in the North-Central and Northeastern United States, an area severely affected by acid rain. To reduce high analytical and collection costs, which are generally associated with a more extensive and formal monitoring program, bulk precipitation collectors consisting of 6-foot-high, 18-inch-diameter fiber tubes fitted with collection bags were installed at the beginning of December 1980 at 189 sites from Maine to Minnesota and from the Canadian border south to the Ohio River valley. Samples were retrieved early in March 1981 from all but 10 sites, where the samples were lost.
Contaminants deposited from the atmosphere can be divided into two parts: the wet component. which includes rain, snow, dew, and hail, and the dry component, which includes large particles that settle out of the atmosphere by gravity, fine to intermediate particles that are deposited by impact on surfaces, and gases that are absorbed or adsorbed by surfaces. Bulk precipitation, which was selected as the collection method in this study, is composed of large particles or dustfall and wet deposition in an open container. Interpretation of the composition of bulk precipitation is difficult because substances borne in the wet component cannot readily be distinguished from those borne in the dustfall. This problem is particularly troublesome when the dustfall component is large and is derived locally. In an attempt to reduce the contribution from local dustfall, the samples were collected during the winter when frozen ground and snow cover minimized the amount of locally
derived dustfall. The bulk precipitation during this period should, therefore, represent the regional atmospheric deposition. Considerable effort was also made to avoid potential sources of local contamination from highways, chimneys, barnyards, and vegetation. For the most part, the collectors were placed a considerable distance from other major sources of contamination such as cities, industrial plants and coal- and oilfired Power plants.
Samples were filtered and analyzed for the following 29 constituents: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), total inorganic carbon (TIC), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca)*, chloride (00*, cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), flouride (F)*, iron (Fe)*, hydrogen (H)*, mercury (Hg), potassium (K), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn)*, molybdenum (Mo), nitrogen as ammonium (NH4)*, nitrate (NO3)*, sodium (Na)*, nickel (Ni), lead (Pb)*, selenium (Se), silica (Si), strontium (Sr)*, sulfate (SO4)*, vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). The analytical techniques and sampling procedures produced results that were judged to be reliable to assess the regional deposition patterns for 12 of these constituents (denoted above by an asterisk). For each site, daily mass loadings (mass per unit area which is generally expressed as milligrams per square meter or micrograms per square meter) were calculated from constituent concentration and quantity of precipitation that fell during the collection period at adjacent National Weather Service stations. These daily loadings are more useful for delineating regional patterns in atmospheric deposition than the concentrations because the length of the collection period and quantities of precipitation varied from site to site.
Regional patterns displayed for ph on figure 1 show that the areas of highest acidity (ph less than 4.2) were centered in western Pennsylvania, western New York, and eastern Ohio. For the 3-month collection period, the area east of Lake Michigan, with the exception of a few collection sites, received acid precipitation with a ph less than 4.8. In Minnesota, on the other hand,