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required by other agencies and their needs complement its program objective. Work done for State, county and municipal agencies is almost always done on a cost-sharing basis.

Most of the funds received by the Survey in fiscal year 1982, both appropriations and reimbursements, are distributed through budget activities that roughly correspond to its mapping, geologic, hydrologic, information transfer, administration, facilities, and regulatory areas of responsibility. During fiscal year 1982, the "Conservation of Lands and Minerals" activity ($129.9 million) in the "Surveys, Investigations, and Research" account functioned under the name "Minerals Management Service." in fiscal year 1983, portions of Offshore Geology and the support organizations will be transferred to the new Minerals Management Service which will have, given Congressional approval, its own appropriation account.


At the end of fiscal year 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey had 7,293 permanent fulltime employees on board, a decrease of 2,145 from fiscal year 1981. Most of this decrease was associated with the transfer of personnel to the Minerals Management Service. More than one-half of the Survey’s permanent full-time staff are professional scientists, and approximately one-fourth are technical specialists. Hydrologists and geologists predominate among the professional group, which includes members of more than 30 other disciplines, such as geophysicists, cartographers, chemists, and engineers.

The Survey’s work has been accomplished with a virtually level full-time work force since 1973; moderate increases in the Geologic Division and the support Divisions have been offset by decreases in the National Mapping and Water Resources Divisions. The additional workload on these scientifically oriented components has been supported in part by the rapid expansion in the use of grants and contractual services and, in part, by the extensive use of temporary and part-time personnel.

The number of these other-than-full-time permanent employees has more than doubled since 1973 and includes many students and faculty members from colleges and universities and summer hires from various categories. The Survey has profited greatly from its association with the academic community. The expertise of many eminent specialists has become available to the Survey in this manner and has given it great flexibility in solving problems and meeting surges in its workload, especially during the field season. The relationship also has been an invaluable channel for recruiting young professionals of demonstrated ability for permanent full-time

positions upon the completion of their studies.

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Minerals Management Service Formed From Conservation Division

The U.S. Geological Survey has often been referred to as the "Mother of Bureaus" because many of its activities have led to the formation of new organizations when a managerial or developmental function evolved. Some of the organizations that have emerged from the Geological Survey include the Reclamation Service in 1901(now the Bureau of Reclamation), the Bureau of Mines in 1910, the Federal Power Commission in 1920, and the Grazing Service in 1934 (since combined with other functions into the Bureau of Land Management).

During the last year, the Geological Survey has gone through yet another partitioning. On January 19, 1982, Secretary Watt announced his decision to establish a Minerals Management Service, originally to consist of the Geological Survey’s Conservation Division. In May 1982, the decision was made to consolidate all 008 lease-related functions within the Minerals Management Service. This action involved moving components from the Bureau of Land Management and Office of Policy Analysis, as well as part of the Geological Survey’s marine geology program. Subsequently, the decision was made to consolidate onshore mineral-leasing functions of the Minerals Management Service and the Bureau of Land Management within the Bureau of Land Management, and in the case of Indian Lands, within the Bureau of Indian Affairs. However, this later action did not directly impact the Geological Survey. Harold E. Doley, Jr., was appointed as the first Director of the Minerals Management Service. The Minerals Management Service reports to the Assistant Secretary for Energy and Minerals. The Secretary's decisions were made to accomplish several objectives: strengthen the royalty-accounting function; streamline lease-related activities; and strengthen the scientific capability and image of the Geological Survey. The Secretary has stated on several occasions his desire for the Geological Survey to be his principal scientific advisor. It is his belief that these decisions will place us in a better position to fulfill this role.

Formation of the Minerals Management Service had a significant impact on the Survey. The total Survey budget was reduced by 29 percent ($150 million) and total personnel was reduced by 23 percent (2,400 positions).

During the process of forming the Minerals Management Service, several questions were raised about the division of responsibilities. The marine geology question has been specifically addressed, and the decision was made that the Geological Survey will retain the responsibility for marine geologic research to include, among other things, regional geologic studies and hazards evaluation and assessment of potential seabed mineral resources.

Formation of the Minerals Management Service should permit the Geological Survey to focus more clearly on its principal mission as defined in the Organic Act of 1879, which is "to classify the public lands, examine the geologic structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain. . . The Geological Survey looks forward to fulfilling this traditional role as well as to cooperating with the Minerals Management Service and the Bureau of Land Management in their new undertaking.


Awards and Honors

Each year employees of the U.S. Geological Survey receive awards that range from modest monetary awards to recognition of their achievements by large professional societies. The large number of these awards attests to the quality of the individuals who are the U.S. Geological Survey. This year, the Survey wishes to acknowledge those individuals who either received high honors from or were elected to high office in professional societies and those individuals who received the Department of the Interior's highest award.


Walter B. Langbein, Senior Staff Hydrologist, received the 1982 International Prize in Hydrological Sciences from the International Association of Hydrological Sciences for his long career of scientific excellence and accomplishment.

Francis T. Schaefer, Assistant Northeastern Regional Hydrologist, was named the "Engineer of the Year" by the National Society of Professional Engineers.

Charles W. Spencer, Research Geologist, was given the Levorsen Award of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. The award is presented annually for the paper that best reflects creative thinking toward new ideas in petroleum exploration.

Richard F. Meyer, Research Geologist, received the Distinguished Service Award from the American Association of Petroleum Geologists "for outstanding contributions in the field of national and international energy resources and for eminent service to this country and AAPG."

Robert B. Halley, Research Geologist, was appointed a Distinguished Lecturer by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. His lecture, which was entitled "Evolution of Carbonate Porosity During BurialBahamas, Florida, Gulf Coast, Jurassic to Holocene," was presented at 10 institutions.

Honors From Foreign Governments

George E. Ericksen, Research Geologist, was honored for this work in geology and institutional development in Peru at a ceremony in Lima on March 22, 1982, on the 80th anniversary of the Cuerpo do Ingenieros de Minas, Peru's first national geological/ mining institute.

Presidents of Professional Societies

Service in professional societies is one of the important professional contributions a scientist can make. Societies play a fundamental role in the distribution of new knowledge, in addition to providing a forum in which new ideas are tested. The active participation of Survey scientists in professional societies attests to the scientific vitality of the Bureau. The Bureau is particularly proud of those individuals who have been elected to society presidencies by their professional peers. They includes the following:

Bruce R. Doe Geochemical Society of America;

Frederick J. Doyle International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing;

Philip E. Greeson American Water Resources Association;

J. Howard McCarthy, Jr. Association of Exploration Geochemists;

Douglas J. Nichols American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists;

Edwin D. Roedder Mineralogical Society of America; and

Donald E. White Society of Economic Geologists.

Presidents (or chairmen) of sections in large interdisciplinary societies include the following:

G. Brent Dalrymple Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section (American Geophysical Union); and

Leonard A. Wood Hydrogeology Division (Geological Society of America).

Department of the Interior Distinguished Service Awards

The highest honor given by the Department of the Interior is the Distinguished Service Award. This award for careers in challenging and difficult assignments was given to 13 U.S. Geological Survey employees this year. These individuals and the bases for their awards were as follows:

Paul B. Barton, Jr., Deputy for Scientific Programs in the Office of Mineral Resources, for his imaginative scientific research on the mineralogy, chemistry, and origin of hydrothermal ore deposits, the inspiration and source of ideas he has provided his coworkers, and the

international prestige he has brought to the Geological Survey;

Peter F. Bermel, Assistant Division Chief for Plans and Operations (NMD), for his exemplary and resourceful leadership, his scientific integrity, and his distinguished career as an administrator;

John D. Bredehoeft, Western Regional Hydrologist, in recognition of his major contributions to the development of this country's water resources;

Robert J. Dingman, former Assistant Chief Hydrologist for Scientific Publications and Data Management, for his exceptional contributions to the field of hydrology;

Frederick J. Doyle, Senior Adviser for Cartography, for his exceptional contributions to the National Mapping Program;

Doyle G. Frederick, Associate Director, for his many significant contributions in the development and management of cartographic and earth sciences programs of the Geological Survey;

Wayne E. Hall, Research Geologist, for his many contributions as a scientist and as an administrator and in recognition of the prestige he has brought to the Geological Survey;

Warren Hamilton, Research Geologist, for his highly innovative research on the relationships of fundamental geologic processes to tectonics and for the international prestige he has brought to the Geological Survey;

Gerald Meyer, former Ground Water Branch Chief, for his exceptional contributions to the development of ground-water programs and resources;

Avery W. Rogers, Western Region Management Officer, in recognition of his essential support role which has contributed so significantly to the accomplishment of the Geological Survey’s Western Region scientific and research programs;

Hansford T. Shacklette, Research Botanist, in recognition of his eminent career as a scientist and of his exceptional contributions to the important fields of environmental geochemistry and mineral exploration geochemistry;

Norman F. Sohl, Chairman of the Bureau's Geologic Names Committee, in recognition of his outstanding accomplishments and the excellence of his scientific reports; and

David 8. Stewart, Research Geologist, in recognition of his outstanding research in experimental studies of rock-forming minerals and his contributions to the national program to manage nuclear wastes.

National Mapping, Geography, and



The National Mapping Division conducts the United States National Mapping Program to make cartographic and geographic information available in graphic and digital form. A family of general-purpose maps in various formats and scales, as well as basic cartographic data, is being produced in four regional Mapping Centers to meet the expanding mapping needs of the Nation. The Division prints Survey map products and stores and distributes all Survey map, text, and photography products. The Division operates the National Cartographic Information Centers, the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center, and the Public Inquiries Offices.

Major Activities

' Primary quadrangle mapping and revision. About 1,135 revised and 950 new standard topographic maps were published. Most were in the 75-minute 1:24,000-scale series (fig. 1), Alaska being the exception where the 1:63,360-scale series is the primary quadrangle map coverage. Currently, 15 States have complete published topographic map coverage at 1:24,000 scale, and, overall, 79 percent of the conterminous United States is available in published form at this scale.

' Small-scale and special mapping. Complete topographic coverage is available for the United States in the 1:250,000 small-scale map series. The intermediate-scale (1:50,000 and 1:100,000) series (fig. 2) is available for more than 70 percent of the conterminous United States. More than 70 topographic/bathymetric maps were published for coastal area planning. Land use and land cover maps are complete for 2.1 million square miles.

' Information and data services; acquisition and dissemination of information about U.S. maps, charts, and aerial and space photographs and imagery; geodetic

control, cartographic and geographic

digital data, and other related informa

tion; distribution of earth science infor

mation to the public; and sale of map

and map-related products through more I than 2,500 private retailers.

' Advanced development and engineering; to improve the quality of standard products; to provide new products, such as digital cartographic data, that make maps and map-related information more useful to users; to reduce costs and to increase productivity of mapping activities; to acquire innovative and more useful equipment; and to design and develop techniques and systems to advance the mapping of important highpriority areas of the country.

' Cartographic and geographic research; with particular emphasis on spatial data techniques for studies using modern geographic analysis with new and improved cartographic concepts and techniques.

' Digital mapping to produce base categories of cartographic data at common standards of content, accuracies, and formats suitable for computer-based analysis.

Budget and Personnel

For fiscal year 1982, National Mapping Division available funding amounted to about $87 million. Included are funds from 34 States, which, together with matching Federal funds, amounted to about $6 million for joint funding agreements for mapping. These joint funding projects mutually benefit the State and national programs by ensuring completion of map coverage sooner than would otherwise be possible.

The permanent full-time personnel strength of the Division at the end of fiscal year 1982 was 1,840, encompassing a variety of professional skills incuding geography, cartography, data processing, engineering, physical science, and photographic and remote-sensing technology.

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