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produce maps at scales ranging from 1:2,000,000 to 1:10,000,000.

The data are available on computer tape in two formats. The standard format provides a useful geographic reference system for displaying a wide range of various types of data. It also supports producing color maps and performing area calculations. The second format is a less complex organization of data corresponding to the 21 areas of the National Atlas source maps. Information on boundaries, transportation, and hydrography is available for each area (fig. 3).

An important feature is that these smallscale data are ranked from the "most significant" feature to the "least significant." This scheme allows the user to select a minimal amount of data and gradually to increase this amount to the level of detail needed to support the theme and scale of the particular map. For instance, a user producing a map of 1:5,000,000 scale can exclude all

rivers and streams less than 30 miles long. The data can also be grouped together in various ways to produce logical sets of information; an interstate highway system can be represented either by only those road segments actually classified as interstate roads or as a complete highway system made up of interstate roads and other roads which act as connectors.

Political boundary data are organized into international boundaries, State boundaries, and city and county boundaries. Federally administered lands, such as national forests, national parks, national wildlife refuges, and others, are classified by the length of their longest dimension. This allows the user to select the types of federally administered lands to be displayed and to control the amount of detail for each type selected.

Road and trail data are organized to display densities of connected networks,

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Missions, Organization, and Budget

Missions

the 50 States and Puerto Rico. At the national level, the functions of the Survey are coordinated through six Assistant Directors acting in the area of administration, program analysis, research, information systems, intergovernmental affairs, and engineering geology.

The U.S. Geological Survey was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1879, to answer the need for a permanent government agency at the Federal level to conduct, on a continuing, systematic, and scientific basis, the investigation of the "geological structure, mineral resources and products of the national domain." A number of laws and executive orders have expanded and modified the scope of the Survey's responsibilities over its 100-year history. Notably, the Survey has been the nurturing ground for many Departmental functions that have grown in importance and subsequently became new bureaus to address specific Federal land management responsibilities. The Bureau of Mines, Bureau of Reclamation, and, most recently (1982), the Minerals Management Service are prominent examples of major organizations in the Department of Interior that have had their origins in the Survey. With these organizational changes, the Survey has served to add a scientific dimension to the performance of many major Department responsibilities. The Survey remains the principal source of scientific and technical expertise in the earth sciences within Interior and, beyond that, within the Federal government. This Yearbook provides highlights of the wide range of earth science research and services in the fields of geology, hydrology, and cartography. Together they represent the continuing pursuit of the long-standing scientific missions of the Survey.

Budget

In fiscal year 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey had obligational authority (including the Minerals Management Service) of $661.8 million, of which $510.0 million came from direct appropriations and $151.8 million from reimbursements. The Survey received funds under two congressional appropriations, “Exploration of National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska" ($2.2 million), and "Surveys, Investigations, and Research," which is the traditional source of direct funding for all other Survey activities ($507.8 million, including the Minerals Management Service). The Survey also received funds for reimbursements for work performed under agreements with Federal agencies, State and local governments, international organizations, and foreign governments. The Survey performs services under these agreements when earth science expertise is

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Organization

The U.S. Geological Survey is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. Its activities are administered through three major program divisions (National Mapping, Geologic, and Water Resources). These program operations are serviced by two major support divisions (Administrative and Information Systems). The Survey conducts its functions through an extensive field organization of offices located throughout

U.S. Geological Survey obligations for fiscal year 1982, by activity (Dollars in thousands)

U.S. Geological Survey obligations for fiscal year 1982, by activity - Continued

Fiscal year

Fiscal year

1982 Activity/Subactivity/Program Element enacted

1982 enacted

Activity/Subactivity/Program Element

108,637

77,687 38,178 34,202

48, 100 14,833 1,257

14,872

3,976

898

Surveys, Investigations, and

Research-National Mapping,

Geography and Surveys
Primary Quadrangle Mapping

Primary Quadrangle Mapping
Modernization of Mapping

Technology
Map Revision and

Orthophotoquads
Revision

Orthoquads
Digital Mapping
Small, Intermediate, and Special

Mapping
Intermediate-Scale Mapping
Land Use and Land Cover

Mapping
Airborne Profiling of Terrain

System
Small-Scale and Other

Special Mapping
Cartographic and Geographic

Information

16,396 10,146 6,250 3,873

Water Resources Investigations
National Water Data System-

Federal Program
Data Collection and Analysis
National Water Data Exchange
Regional Aquifer Systems

Analyses
Coordination of Water Data

Activities
Core Program Hydrologic

Research -
Improved Instrumentation
Subsurface Waste Storage
Flood Hazards Analysis
Water Resources Assessment
Supporting Services
Toxic Wastes-Ground Water

Contamination
Acid Rain
Federal-State Cooperative

Program
Data Collection and Analysis,

Areal Appraisals and Special

Studies
Water Use (Cooperative)

Coal Hydrology (Cooperative)
Energy Hydrology

Coal Hydrology
Nuclear Energy Hydrology
Oil Shale Hydrology

5,996 1,944 1,461

460

337 3,599

15,388 6,804

3,461

958 1,485

2,592

45,012

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Geologic and Mineral Resource

Surveys and Mapping
Geologic Hazards Surveys

Earthquake Hazards Reduction
Volcano Hazards
Ground Failure and

Construction Hazards
Reactor Hazards Research
Land Resource Surveys

Geologic Framework
Geomagnetism

Climate Change
Mineral Resource Surveys

Alaska Mineral Surveys
Conterminous U.S. Mineral

Surveys
Wilderness Mineral Surveys
Strategic-Critical Minerals
Development of Assessment

Techniques
Mineral Discovery Loan

Program
Energy Geologic Surveys

Coal Investigations
Onshore Oil and Gas

Investigations
Oil Shale Investigations
Geothermal Investigations
Uranium-Thorium

Investigations
World Energy Resource

Assessment
Offshore Geologic Surveys
Offshore Oil and Gas

Resources
Energy-Related Environmental

Investigations
Marine Geology Investigations

Facilities
National Center - Standard Level

Users' Charge
National Center - Facilities

Management
TOTAL, Surveys, Investigations,

and Research

12,017

1,631

2377,919

105 38,148 12,901

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7,032 2,304 8,064

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Barrow Area Gas Operation,

Exploration and Develop

ment
Operation and Maintenance

Exploration and Development TOTAL, U.S. Geological Survey

969 21,258

$380, 115

11,350

1 Funding shown represents appropriations under "Surveys, Investigations, and Research" only and does not include other sources of funding such as reimbursements from other Federal or State organizations.

2 Excludes $129,868 for Minerals Management Service.

8,448 1,460

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