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produce maps at scales ranging from 1:2,000,000 to 1:10,000,000.
The data are available on computer tape in two formats. The standard format provides a useful geographic reference system for displaying a wide range of various types of data. It also supports producing color maps and performing area calculations. The second format is a less complex organization of data corresponding to the 21 areas of the National Atlas source maps. Information on boundaries, transportation, and hydrography is available for each area (fig. 3).
An important feature is that these smallscale data are ranked from the "most significant" feature to the "least significant." This scheme allows the user to select a minimal amount of data and gradually to increase this amount to the level of detail needed to support the theme and scale of the particular map. For instance, a user producing a map of 1:5,000,000 scale can exclude all
rivers and streams less than 30 miles long. The data can also be grouped together in various ways to produce logical sets of information; an interstate highway system can be represented either by only those road segments actually classified as interstate roads or as a complete highway system made up of interstate roads and other roads which act as connectors.
Political boundary data are organized into international boundaries, State boundaries, and city and county boundaries. Federally administered lands, such as national forests, national parks, national wildlife refuges, and others, are classified by the length of their longest dimension. This allows the user to select the types of federally administered lands to be displayed and to control the amount of detail for each type selected.
Road and trail data are organized to display densities of connected networks,
World Dofo Bonk ll (mid-70's)
World Data Bank l (mid-60's)
igure 2. —Comparison of level of detail contained in existing small-scale digital data bases for part of Florida, shown here at about 1:5,000,000 scale.
Potential Petroleum Reserves
An assessment of potential petroleum reserves in existing or designated wilderness areas of the Western United States is being assisted through the use of small-scale digital cartographic data. Map data portraying the boundaries of these wilderness areas, underlying geological formations, and previously delineated resource areas have been digitized and correlated by using computer techniques. These data, merged with data on petroleum production on adjoining lands, will enable petroleum geologists to develop meaningful estimates of potential reserves in the wilderness lands.
The promising results from this petroleum study show that small-scale digital cartographic data provide an important frame— work for the analysis of natural resources of federally owned lands. Because of this, the Geological Survey is giving high priority to the development of a national Digital Cartographic Data Base covering all Federal lands. The data formats are designed to provide the capability of analyzing a variety of data on other natural resources.
The U.S. Geological Survey was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1879, to answer the need for a permanent government agency at the Federal level to conduct, on a continuing, systematic, and scientific basis, the investigation of the "geological structure, mineral resources and products of the national domain." A number of laws and executive orders have expanded and modified the scope of the Survey’s responsibilities over its 100-year history. Notably, the Survey has been the nurturing ground for many Departmental functions that have grown in importance and subsequently became new bureaus to address specific Federal land management responsibilities. The Bureau of Mines, Bureau of Reclamation, and, most recently (1982), the Minerals Management Service are prominent examples of major organizations in the Department of interior that have had their origins in the Survey. With these organizational changes, the Survey has served to add a scientific dimension to the performance of many major Department responsibilities. The Survey remains the principal source of scientific and technical expertise in the earth sciences within Interior and, beyond that, within the Federal government. This Yearbook provides highlights of the wide range of earth science research and services in the fields of geology, hydrology, and cartography. Together they represent the continuing pursuit of the long-standing scientific missions of the Survey.
The U.S. Geological Survey is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. Its activities are administered through three major program divisions (National Mapping, Geologic, and Water Resources). These program operations are serviced by two major support divisions (Administrative and Information Systems). The Survey conducts its functions through an extensive field organization of offices located throughout
the 50 States and Puerto Rico. At the national level, the functions of the Survey are coordinated through six Assistant Directors acting in the area of administration, program analysis, research, information systems, intergovernmental affairs, and engineering geology.
in fiscal year 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey had obligational authority (including the Minerals Management Service) of $661.8 million, of which $510.0 million came from direct appropriations and $151.8 million from reimbursements. The Survey received funds under two congressional appropriations, "Exploration of National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska" ($2.2 million), and "Surveys, investigations, and Research," which is the traditional source of direct funding for all other Survey activities ($507.8 million, including the Minerals Management Service). The Survey also received funds for reimbursements for work performed under agreements with Federal agencies, State and local governments, international organizations, and foreign governments. The Survey performs services under these agreements when earth science expertise is
Surveys and Mapping —————— —— 163,731 Geologic Hazards Surveys ——————— —- 48,547 Earthquake Hazards Reduction -- 32,992 Volcano Hazards ———————————— -- 9,664 Ground Failure and Construction Hazards —————— —- 2,785 Reactor Hazards Research ———— -- 3,106 Land Resource Surveys ---------- —— 16,476 Geologic Framework ————————— -— 13,320 Geomagnetism -------------- -- 2,139 Climate Change ------------- -- 1,017 Mineral Resource Surveys ------- -- 39,302 Alaska Mineral Surveys ------- —- 8,924 Conterminous U.S. Mineral Surveys —————————————————— —— 5,131 Wilderness Mineral Surveys ————— 8,583 Strategic-Critical Minerals ———— —— 4,542 Development of Assessment Techniques --------------- —— 12,017 Mineral Discovery Loan Program ————————————————— —- 105 Energy Geologic Surveys ————————— —- 38,148 Coal Investigations —————————— -- 12,901 Onshore Oil and Gas Investigations ————————————— -- 7,032 Oil Shale Investigations —————— —— 2,304 Geothermal Investigations ———— —— 8,064 Uranium-Thorium Investigations ------------- —— 6,878 World Energy Resource Assessment —————————————— —— 969 Offshore Geologic Surveys ——————— —— 21,258 Offshore Oil and Gas Resources ———————————————— -— 11,350 Energy-Related Environmental Investigations ————————————— —— 8,448 Marine Geology Investigations -- 1,460
U. 8. Geological Survey obligations for fiscal year 1982, by activity— Continued
Fiscal year 1982‘ Activity/Subactivity/Program Element enacted Water Resources Investigations -- 108,637 National Water Data System
Federal Program ------------- —— 48,100 Data Collection and Analysis ——-- 14,833 National Water Data Exchange —- 1,257 Regional Aquifer Systems
Analyses ————————————————— —— 14,872 Coordination of Water Data
Activities ----------------- -— 898 Core Program Hydrologic
Research ————————————————— —- 5,996 Improved Instrumentation ———— -— 1,944 Subsurface Waste Storage ————- 1,461 Flood Hazards Analysis ——————— —- 460 Water Resources Assessment --- 337 Supporting Services --------- -- 3,599 Toxic Wastes-Ground Water
Contamination ------------ -- 958
Data Collection and Analysis, Areal Appraisals and Special
Studies —————————————————— -- 38,541 Water Use (Cooperative) ————— —— 3,334 Coal Hydrology (Cooperative) --- 3,137
Energy Hydrology --------------- -- 15,525 Coal Hydrology ————————————— -- 7,564 Nuclear Energy Hydrology ———— —— 6,673 Oil Shale Hydrology ---------- -- 1,288
Earth Sciences Applications ———— —— 14,359
Earth Resources Observation
Environmental Affairs —————————— -— 1,457
Land Resources Data Applications — 844 General Administration -------- —- 3,407 General Administration --------- —— 2,525 Employee Compensation Payment - 882 Facilities ---------------------- -- 10,098
National Center—Standard Level
National Center— Facilities
TOTAL, Surveys, Investigations,
1 Funding shown represents appropriations under "Surveys, Investigations, and Research" only and does not include other sources of funding such as reimbursements from other Federal or State organizations.
2 Excludes $129,868 for Minerals Management Service.