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PENITENTIAL CORONET FOR SCOLDS. What is the origin of the custom of eating goose With a set of jougs, an instrument of punishment in on Michaelmas-day? In a large party yesterday, at the olden time, similar to those figured in Wilson's Predinner, not one person was able to advance a satisfactory | historic Annals of Scotland, p. 691, was found in an elucidation of the question.

old press, in the Kirk of Ruthven, in Forfarshire, the Salisbury, Sept. 30.

W. P. N. singular relic of the bygone day : the iron coronet here Probably no better reason can be rendered than that

described. It is supposed to have been worn as a deMichaelmas-day was a great festival, and that geese are

risive penance by scolds or evil doers, in the parish of then in their prime season, the custom being peculiar to

| Ruthven, no other example being known to the writer, England. In 1470, John de la Hay, as a tenure, was bound to render to William Barnaby, Lord of Lastres, in the county of Hereford, for a parcel of the demesne lands, one Goose fit for the Lord's dinner on the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel ; it was then, as it would appear, a custom.

Tradition however refers to another incident, by which the custom would seem to have had an additional incentive to a more general observance. “On the 29th of September 1588, Queen Elizabeth dined at the ancient mansion of Sir Neville Umfreville, near Tilbury Fort, and as Her Majesty preferred dining of a high seasoned and substantial dish than of a flimsy fricassee, or rascally ragout, the Knight thought proper to provide a brace of fine geese to suit the palate of his royal guest. The Queen having dined heartily, in a bumper of Burgundy, drank • Destruction to the Spanish Armada!' and had but that moment returned the goblet to the knight, who had done the honours of the

The parish registries of Ruthven are of recent date, table, than intimation was brought that the Spanish fleet had been destroyed by a storm. Exhilarated by the iuci

ucis ) and wholly silent as to whom of the good folks now dent, and delighted with the good news, the Queen drank sleeping soundly in their last tenement the grave, this another bumper, and every year after on that day had the honorary coronet was awarded as an unenviable disabovementioned dish at her table. The Court made it a tinction, either as story-tellers or as waverers from the custom, and the people have followed the fashion to this paths of virtue, for doubtless this has been of a simiday."

larly corrective use with the brank. But the days have changed, and unobserved by most Though somewhat rusty, this instrument of parochial people. Michaelmas-day, or the 29th of the month de inquisition in an intolerant age is in good preservation ; scribed by Churchill, as,

across the circle it measures about 5 1 inches; and in September, when by custom, right divine;

front, from the verge to the top-point of the fleur-de-lis, Geese are ordain'd to bleed at Michael's shrine,

| is 4 inches ; that ornament rising nearly two inches is now by the alteration in the style, eleven days earlier above the upper hoop. Attached to the lower hoop, are than the days of Elizabeth ; geese are much finer in con three ears or pendants having holes pierced for cords to dition on old Michaelmas-day; those eaten according to the pass through them, in the attaching or fastening the modern observance, being for the most part unfed or stubble coronet to the head of the delinquent, or, for tying under geese.

the chin.

A. J. The phrases “My goose is cook’d,” spoken by one, on whom misfortune has operated most unkindly ; or said

CUCKING OR DOCKING STOOLS. in a threatening tone, of another “ To cook his goose,” i.e. to do him an ill turn; bave their origin from a source but On the place called “the Barbican," at Plymouth, little known. The Swedish army under Gustavus Adolphus, fifty or sixty years since, I remember seeing one of had in it many English and Scottish officers, men on whose these stools swinging over, or on the edge of Plymouthloyalty and skill the King placed the utmost confidence.

pool. The chair was made of iron, suspended by a Having with a small force invested a large town, the King,

chain running over the end of the beam. I understood it with the counsel of his officers, summoned it to surrender, but the besieged in derision, hung out on a pole a goose, as

was then in frequent use, and well recollect the being a mark for his artillery. The batteries commenced, many

threatened by my uncle, with a dip, if I did not behave buildings were soon in flames, and breaches sufficiently

well. Some old inhabitant of Plymouth may possibly widened for the assault, when the town drums beat a par be able to supply a drawing, and some further particuley, to learn the King's purpose, the reply was simply, lars. “ Only to cook your goose !"

J. M.



SEBASTOPOL AN ENGLISH FORTIFICATION. The author of the History of King-killers; or the

SEBASTOPOL is a word of world-wide speculation : it Fanatick Martyrology, 1720, vol. ii. October, p. 65,1 relates some very extraordinary particulars of William

engrosses the imaginative faculties of millions; and is

spoken of every where, but, comparatively no one has Prynne, born in 1600, to which the attention of any

heard who was the engineer and director of that refuture biographer is particularly directed.

doubtable fortification. He was an Englishman. When He was a right sturdy doughty champion for the Cause, the main road from London to Holyhead, was made a a Puritan boutefeu, an inveterate enemy to his Sovereign, subject of enquiry, and the improvement determined ; and no less to Bishops, especially after bis imprisonment John Upton of Charleton, was at Midsummer 1818, and punishment for his Histriomastix, a busy pragmatical appointed Surveyor of the western part, about fourteen and meddling man without end.

miles, of the Old Stratford and Dunchurch Trusts, at a This profligate scribbler, and general reviler of all honest yearly salary of 1051. Many of the improvements on men, who had long before deserved to make his exit at Tyburn, the above line were effected under his superintendence, undeserved had his life protracted till 1669, when he died

so much to the satisfaction of Mr. Telford, the chief on the 24th of October, at his chambers in Lincoln's Inn, and was buried under the chapel there, no epitaph over

Engineer, that he highly commended him to the Comhis grave, but had this then made by an ingenious person :

missioners for his ability, and recommended that the

whole of the Old Stratford and Dunchurch trust should Here lies the corpse of William Prynne,

be placed in his hands, and the salary of the other, the A bencher late of Lincoln's Inn,

eastern surveyor, should be added to his own. His Who restless ran through thick and thin.

labours appear to bave elicited considerable praise, and This grand Scripturient paper-spiller,

his name frequently occurs with honour in the ParliaThis endless, heedless margin-filler,

mentary Reports of the Commissioners of the Holyhead Was strongly tost from post to pillar.

road, onward to the year 1826. During this time he His brain's career was never stopping,

resided at Daventry, in Northamptonshire, and adopted But pen with rheum of gall still dropping,

a style of living far beyond his means - not only had Till hand o'er head brought ears to lopping.

he contrived to obtain from his wife's relations, upwards Nor would he yet surcease such theams,

of three thousand pounds, of which he wholly swindled But prostitute new virgin reams,

them, but he also held the post-office for one year at To types of his Fanatick dreams.

Daventry, and was even there a defaulter of nearly three But whilst he thus hot humour hugs,

hundred pounds, which one of his sureties had to pay. And more for length of tether tugs,

Deemed and spoken of by those who knew him as a Death fang'd the remnant of his lugs.

sad scamp,' in the month of April 1826, it was discovered he had committed many gross frauds on the

Trustees of the Road. An enquiry by a competent The only known copy of Prynne's Introduction to his

person was instantly instituted, and it was found he great work on the Public Records, designated “ Book

had misappropriated the funds belonging to the Trustees the First,” no distinct title, and terminating abruptly at to more

luat to more than 20001. He was charged with this misp. 400, was at the sale of the Stowe Library, purchased

demeanour, and evidence taken as to the facts, but he by the Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn, for 3351. It is now in their splendid Library, further details will

Library further Setsile will Assizes. He appeared in due course at the Assizes, and be found in Spilsbury's account of that Library, or

answered when called on to plead. The trial however in the Law Review, for August, 1849.

did not come on, on the first day, and then contrary to An attempt has been made to ascertain precisely

what his solicitor had told him, that he would be merely Prynne's chambers in Lincoln's Inn, and the result has

indicted for a fraud, he learned from information that been thus far successful. At the time of his decease,

could not be doubted that he would be indicted for he occupied chambers in Garden Court, Garden Row forgery, and as no doubt of his guilt was entertained, and what was then Garden Court, comprises now the

that he would probably be hanged. That night he slept three houses, Nos. 7, 8, and 9 of Old Square, but in

at Northampton, and on the next morning rose about which of these three, lodged so distinguished an oc

7 o'clock, said, he was going for a walk, and would cupant, no record now known serves to particularise.

return to breakfast. He however made the best of his way to London, and having applied by recommendation to the Russian authorities in the metropolis, received

an immediate appointment as Engineer, and in a few COUNTRY Book-Club, published anonymously, 1788, days was secretly on his road to the Crimea. The 4to. Who was the author of this amusing and well means he adopted to obtain that recommendation are written Poem ?

known, but to mention names would be invidious, it Norwich, Oct. 7.

R. F.

would implicate persons whose characters are unimThe author resident at Colchester, was named Shillitoe. peached and unimpeachable. Persons of his talent are

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highly prized in Russia, and it is possible something of PORT NATAL AND ITS COLONIAL CONDITION. his real character was at the same time distinctly made known: talents are the first thing required in that

MR. Willis gladly avails himself of this friendly country, and as to honesty, the surest guarantee for communication for Current Notes, from a far distant that, is the fact, there is a certainty of being hanged or

land; as the writer is a gentleman of independent severely punished, if detected in being otherwise. When means, liberally disposed, and unbiassed in his observaUpton arrived at Sebastopol, the harbour was in a very

tions. Facts are stubborn materials, and the disseminainefficient state; several engineers had in vain en

tion of these pertinent remarks made on the spot, may deavoured to improve it: the difficulty of obtaining water add considerably in improving the position of persons to admit and to float great ships seemed insurmount

who might from this or previous representation be induced able ; he, however, procured immense iron works from to emigrate thither. Birmingham, and by science, labour, and expense, he made Sebastopol what it is. The whole time of his

Durban, Port Natal, July 15. residence in the Crimea, he was engaged in directing Your Current Notes of February only reached me by fortifications in the Black Sea, and was for many years the Mail just arrived. The postal communication here chief engineer at Sebastopol. The Emperor, satisfied is so bad, that at present nearly eight months are rewith his exertions and success, conferred on him the quired to receive an answer to a letter. The Catalogue rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Russian army, and he of Books makes me wish I had the wings of lightning, was honourably distinguished and received at the palace that I might be with you, if only for a few hours for a of St. Petersburg. Colonel Upton died about a year supply of good books. Here, being a new colony, since, but the lasting celebrity of his name, as the books are very scarce ; people have neither time nor creator of the almost impregnable defences at Sebas- means to procure them. There is a moderately mixed topol will be more durable than the presumed solidity of collection belonging to the Natal Society, at Pieterits walls, or the brazen artillery that now bristle through maritzburg, the city and capital, as well as the see of their embrasures.

a Bishop. The Society receives from the Government

fifty pounds annually, for which they allow the public “Our special Correspondent," Times, Oct. 20, describ- admission to the Library gratis. Subscribers of ten ing the movement to Balaklava, Sept. 25, states, “ on shillings can take the books home for reading. The our march to-day, the cavalry took a Mr. Upton, an Rev. Robert Moffat, well known in the Missionary world, Englishman by birth, and son of the English engineer has lent them a good collection relating to South Africa, who constructed so many useful works at Sebastopol. which have very much interested me; as here, I can He was captured on his farm, and was taken before better appreciate them, and similar scenes are almost Lord Raglan, but he refused in the most decisive way daily offered to my view. It is amusing to notice the to give any information respecting the Russians, as he palpable factions into which the writers are divided—that said he could not reconcile it to his notions of honour is, whether for, or against the Missionaries; from my own to injure a Government in whose military service he had knowledge the Missionaries have done no good; and in been. He is in the custody of the Provost Marshal, conversation with many zealous religionists, they gene- Macdonald, 93d Regiment. It is believed he has rally admit that no progress has been made in converting not much to tell."

the natives.

There is another small collection of books in the Mechanics' Institute at Durban, but they are unimportant.

The Caffre or black population of Natal belong to the

Negro race, having woolly hair, flat noses and thick HOW TO STAY A LADY'S TONGUE.

lips; they are however very superior to the Negroes of

the West, or Guinea coast, though barbarians of a low ABERNETHY, the late surgeon, abhorred ladies of in- grade, having no religious ceremonies, and are so low in finite tongue, and being once annoyed by a patient more intellect, that all traditions of either religion or history than usually garrulous, said sharply, “ Madam, put out with them are forgotten. They have a few absurd preyour tongue ! She did so—“Now keep it there ;" was judices-such as refusing the flesh of pigs and fowls; the rejoinder. This apparent rudeness had from the this, I believe, they have derived from the Mahommelady volumes of report,' every body was told of the dans. They are nearly naked, but by a recent ordinance circumstance; a younger lady, known to the writer, and of the Lieutenant-Governor, they are in Durban, Piemore apt, to whom it had been told, and also one of his termaritzburg and Ladismith, the three principal towns patients, was bade by him — “Miss, put out your of the colony, compelled to clothe themselves. Nearly tongue !" Looking in his face most archly, after a the whole of the blacks are refugees, or their descendmoment's hesitation, she said — “Ah! Doctor ; butants, from the neighbouring tribes of Zoolus, Maccatees, before I do so, I should like to know, whether I shall be Amapondas, etc.; a few under their chief Omnini, permitted to take it in again?"

appear to belong to the aboriginal race; or, at least, are J. M. the oldest inhabitants of the country—the aboriginals of which were almost mercilessly annihilated by the and bushes, of a park like character ; but this part is monster Charka, a former chief of the Zoolus. The greatly infested with myriads of insects, some of them only memorials of the older inhabitants I have found of the most beautiful form and colour. The ticks, or are some hundred miles from the coast, consisting of bush-lice are horribly annoying — they penetrate into circular stone kraals, probably when first erected they the skin, and there remain until extracted ; to cattle may have been six feet high; a similar kind of stone- they are particularly troublesome. work is stiil practised by the Maccatees beyond the Beyond the coast the country is almost destitute of Quathlambas. Should the present race of barbarians wood, excepting in kloofs, in which antelopes, tigers, be exterminated, the writings of the white man will be wolves, and wild animals abound; occasionally a large their only memorial ; as their works are of the slightest tract is seen covered with acacia bushes, the mimosa, kind, which a very few years would wholly destroy. The and other varieties; Inanda, Uys Dorus, Blue Krantz dead are thrown into the bush to be devoured by the first districts, are of this character, and greatly embellish the wild animal that comes, and if all is true as reported, | landscape. the lions, tigers, and alligators prefer black to white Byrne, who got up the vile emigration scheme some flesh.

six years ago, described the country as gently undulatThe young men are generally a fine athletic race, ing; the very reverse is the fact, as the whole country some with their hair trimmed like a bishop's wig, others is, one after another, a mass of flat-topped hills. Still, work it up as high as possible in front, which gives them from the coast to Pietermaritzburg, the ascent is but a ferocious look; after a certain age they attain some fifteen hundred feet; while the pass over the Quathhigher grade, when the hair on the top of the head is lamba range of mountains, which separate the colony shaved off with an assegai or spear, and the remainder from the Orange River Free State, is not more than is in a very ugly style, formed into a circular band, held | five thousand feet above the level of the sea. These together on the top by a black gum. The women are mountains are the highest point of this part of Africa; in complete bondage, doing all the work, whilst their the rivers from this point taking different courseshusbands are enjoying themselves; they are bought in those on the Western side flowing into the Atlantic, the same way as cattle---some men will have five or while those on the Eastern side pass into the Indian six, according to their wealth-in fact, it is no uncom-Ocean. The view from the summit of the Quathlambas mon thing to see an ugly old brute with his youngest is very extensive, but with the bright blue sky of Natal wife, not more than sixteen. The women, as they get it is dangerous to say how far the eye can reach: in old, become most disgusting hags, and all have an returning, I distinctly recognised some of the craggy offensive efluvia arising from them. The real gentle- points seventy miles distant. Some of the highest men of the colony are the blacks, who spend their time points were coated with snow at the end of May, which in dancing, singing the most dismal ditties, smoking is the beginning of winter ; on the plains the snow seland snuffing, which last feat they perform to such an dom lays for twenty-four hours—when it does, the conextent, that the tears run down their cheeks. No idea sequences are disastrous to the cattle. The sun being of gratitude is perceptible, force only acts on them-in powerful in the middle of the day makes, by comparison, this respect they are worse since their subjection to the nights feel colder. British rule. The boys who go out to service with the | Their mode of travelling here, is by waggons, drawn colonists, receive five shillings per month and their food, by fourteen oxen; each waggon will carry a load of which costs about five shillings more. Porridge or boiled three thousand pounds weight, and will accomplish on Indian corn, here called Mealies, constitute their food, an average about sixteen miles each day; on a long with meat for one meal during the week. Beef sells at distance this is however felt to be very tedious, but Durban for three-pence per pound for the best cuts, and there are no tavern bills to pay on the road. At night at Pietermaritzburg for two-pence; inferior cuts are the oxen are loosened to feed themselves on the grass of less in price.

the open country; the Caffres sleep during the night The Blacks exceed one hundred thousand; the Eng- 'under the waggons, and the master or traveller inside, lish are four thousand; and there are about four protected by the waggon tent. Sufficient provisions, thousand Dutch Boers, Africanders by birth, who are kettles and pans are always provided, and carried for the emigrants from Cape Colony. To à traveller, this journey. At particular seasons, there are a large colony is particularly interesting, as it is almost in a number of waggons out-farmed for the night. I have state of nature; I have visited many foreign countries, seen so many as thirty, which with fourteen oxen to but never saw one so slightly occupied before. No cul- each, and three persons to each waggon, making a total tivated lands with hedge rows, houses, towns and vil- of 420 oxen and ninety people, present round the camplages meet the eye, nothing, save a few trifling patches, fire, a very animated scene in the wilderness, the but a boundless uncultivated space.

travellers spinning long yarns of adventures and hairFrom the port to the capital, the distance exceeds breadth escapes, not surpassed by the extraordinary fifty miles; thence to Ladismith, one hundred miles averments of Baron Munchausen. further. The scenery on the coast land is much the Good grazing land in the upper districts can be bought finest, and more picturesque, as it abounds with trees from the Dutch Boers, who, when Natal was first conA.

lines :

stituted a British colony, had it freely granted to them ORIEL WINDOW.-Will any reader of Current Notes by the British Government at from sixpence to nine- give the derivation of the word Oriel, and why a winpence per acre; the Government upset price to settlers dow is so called? Oriel College at Oxford, was so is four shillings per acre. Oxen, of a large size, are called, it is said, from the building there, in which the fifty shillings each : Caffre sheep, an inferior breed with fresh members resided, before the college was erected, huge tails, six shillings each ; Merino sheep are nomi- being called La Oriol, or Oriel; and that over the gatenally twelve shillings each, but they are scarce, and re-way of the College, was a window of such peculiar contained by the farmers in improving their flocks. Goats struction, that thence was derived the appellation of an are ordinarily four shillings each. The great and pro-Oriel window? I have carefully searched every French bably the only drawback to the more rapid development and English Dictionary, but without meeting with either of Natal as a colony, is the too general apparent want of the words La Oriol, or Oriel. of capital, and there being too many people here as Was the so-called Oriel window known before the settlers, who have come from the manufacturing dis- building of the College? If so, what is the meaning of tricts.

the word ? WILLIAN BOYNE. Dover, Oct. 4.

ARCHDEACON Nares in his Glossary, after stating that

the word Oriel is supposed by some to be a diminutive of SINGULAR EPITAPH.

Area, or Areola, observes : “ In modern writings we meet

with mention of Oriel Windows. I doubt the propriety of In the church-yard of Kells, New Galloway, on an | the expression, but if right, they must mean those windows inscribed stone to John Murray, Gamekeeper, and a that project like a porch or small room. I may be wrong favourite servant of Lord Kenmore, are the following

of Oriel window, but I have not met with ancient authority for that expression." Dr. Milner, designates it “a feature

in the last and worst state of what is called gothic, and O John! what changes since I saw thee last,

different from a bow-window : the latter being the segment Thy fishing and thy shooting days are past.

of a circle, whilst the former is made up of angles or Bagpipes and Hautboys thou shalt sound no more,

straight lines; being generally the half of a pentagon, hecThy nods, grimaces, and thy winks are o'er;

tagon, or octagon."* Thy wildish, queerish, incoherent talk,

The primary use of Oriel, appears to have implied a pentThy jests, vivacity, and trudging walk,

house, or covered way, a porch ; it may possibly be derived Will soon be quite forgot—thy joys on earth A Snuff, a glass; riddles and noisy mirth

from the Saxon ofer-helan, i.e. tegere? Over-hele, by Are vanish'd all - yet blest I hope thou art,

elision Oer-hele, is an English word, meaning to cover For in thy station well thou'st play'd thy part.

over ; so in Ben Jonson's Masques at Court: ! On the reverse of the stone are ensculptured represen

“ Thy rude voice, that doth so hoarsely blow, tations of a gun, fishing-rod, powder-flask, grouse,

Thy hair, thy beard, thy wings, o'er held with snow." hares, fish, hounds, etc.

Transmuted by the usual process, into the Latin of the
middle ages, O'er-hele, the noun, would readily become


The Pipe Roll 1234, 18 Hen. III., notices the charge

expended“ in quadam Capella pulchra et decenti facienda Is anything known of the principle or possibilities of ad caput (meaning probably on the top of ] Orioli camere the late Captain Warner's long range, which the public Regis in castro Herefordie, de longitudine xx pedum.” was led to believe would be a projectile of immense ad-On the same record, but in an entry of the following year, vantage in warfare, with a certainty of aim and results, the position of the Oriel itself, is elsewhere plainly declared, at an immense distance.

“in uno magno Oriollo pulchro et competenti, ante Boulogne.

ostium magne camere Regis castro de Kenilworth faciendo,

vil. xvis. ipd." · Captain Warner's long range was to have been accom- Oriel College in Oxford was first founded by King plished by a balloon, carrying bomb-shells and other de- Edward II., in honour of the Blessed Virgin, but King structive missiles, charged with detonating powers; but as Edward III. bestowing on the Provost and Fellows, or to the certainty of aim, nothing could be more uncertain, Scholars, “a large messuage, then commonly called and as he found to his cost; for as the balloon must have been written La Oriole," the community leaving their old habiat the disposal of the wind, its direction would consequently tation of Tackley's Inn, afterwards Bulkley Hall, moved be uncertain, the wind being ever beyond human control. thither. This “large messuage” was evidently distinguished The whole scheme was a delusion, as I can testify. My by some stately porch or vestibule, of sufficient consequence ALBION balloon was purchased by the projector, and by a to create the appellation of “La Oriole" to the entire failure, wholly unforeseen by him, was destroyed in an ex edifice. periment.

CHARLES GREEN, Aeronaut. Tuffnell Park, Holloway,

• History of Winchester, vol. ií. p. 283.

S. P.

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