Creative Environments: Issues of Creativity Support for the Knowledge Civilization Age

Front Cover
Andrzej P. Wierzbicki, Yoshiteru Nakamori
Springer, Jun 2, 2007 - Mathematics - 509 pages

"Creative Environments" is a follow-up on the book Creative Space in the same series and by the same authors, serving this time as editors of a broader book on computational intelligence and knowledge engineering tools for supporting knowledge creation. This book contains four parts. The first part presents a further development of models of knowledge creation presented already in Creative Space, in particular the Triple Helix of normal academic knowledge creation and a new, integrated model of normal academic and organizational knowledge creation, called Nanatsudaki (seven waterfalls) Model. The second part presents computational intelligence tools for knowledge acquisition by machine learning and data mining, for debating, brainstorming, for roadmapping and for integrated support of academic creativity. The third part presents the use of statistics for creativity support, virtual laboratories, gaming and role playing for creativity support, methods of knowledge representation and multiple criteria aggregation, distance and electronic learning. The last part addresses knowledge management and philosophical issues and contains chapters: on management of technology and knowledge management for academic R and D; on knowledge management and creative holism or systems thinking in the knowledge age; on technology and change or the role of technology in knowledge civilisation; on the emergence of complex concepts in science; and the final chapter on summary and conclusions, including a proposal of an integrated episteme of constructive evolutionary objectivism, necessary for the knowledge civilization age.

 

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Ba, Japanese for place or environment, is also the notion of computerized creativity support. Heidegger described technology as a quest for truth through creativity. Social science needs to better understand knowledge creation in science and tech. A constructive evolutionary objectivism episteme has ten postulates based on several principles. The evolutionary falsification principle measures fitness by number of tests passed. The emergence principle states that qualitatively different properties emerge from complexity, e.g. as software is different from hardware. The multimedia principle holds that historical records of knowledge will stimulate creativity by including complex visual and preverbal elements in addition to words. New concepts in science will be based on horizontal changes in mathematics. Technology and basic science form a feedback loop. The intellectual environment is a heritage of humanity worth preserving. Creative holism has a systemic approach to organization. Academic knowledge creation involves social, technical and mathematical approaches. Interdisciplinary approaches to mathematical modeling attempt to provide qualitative improvements. The book develops a testable creative environment (CE) to support scientific research. Roadmapping is a kind of knowledge creation process which can use various types of IT principles and tools for academic research. Software and tools for brainstorming and group debate are biased towards commercially goal-oriented organizations and need significant changes for academic use. Knowledge discovery requires interactions between AI and human reviewers, e.g. inclusion of user preferences in data mining. Seven creative spirals are proposed as tools for prescriptive synthesis in the process of learning. Survey results are presented for questions related to knowledge creation support. The book has twenty-one authors. There are four parts for eighteen chapters on models of creative processes, tools, diverse tools, and philosophical issues. It has many figures and tables including the spiral representations of processes, the triple helix model and JAIST Nanatsudaki model. The major text points are emphasized in box outlines. The content also has the hierarchical summaries of introduction and conclusion for each chapter and as a whole. Other topics include machine learning, statistics, virtual labs, gaming, criteria, and distance and e-learning, This is a followup to the editors’ previous publication on Creative Space, 2005. This book may also be of interest to inventors and innovators outside of entirely academic domains since learning advantages are key to most other pursuits. 

Contents

Virtual Modelling Laboratories
253
Gaming and Role Playing as Tools for Creativity Training
255
112 Current Directions in Gaming Negotiation and Game Theory
256
113 Gaming in Business Education
258
1132 Gaming Simulation Efforts in a Business School
259
1133 Procedure of the Gaming Simulation
260
1135 Experiences in Gaming Simulations
261
1136 Significance of Gaming Simulation at a Business School
262

Testing the Triple Helix Model
25
22 Knowledge Creation Processes
27
23 A Survey of Scientific Creativity Support
30
232 Questionnaire Design
31
233 Study Instruments
32
241 Reference Profiles and Achievement Functions
34
242 The Application of Reference Profiles in Our Research
37
243 Survey Findings
40
25 Discussion
42
26 Conclusions
44
Knowledge Sciences and JAIST Nanatsudaki Model
47
32 Management Knowledge Management versus Technology
48
33 The Emergence of Knowledge Sciences
50
34 The Need for a Prescriptive Synthesis of Knowledge Creation Processes
52
35 The Nanatsudaki Model
54
351 Objective Setting
57
352 Hermeneutics
58
353 Socialisation
59
354 Brainstorming
60
355 Debate
61
356 Roadmapping
62
Experimental Work
63
A Different Cycle of the Entire Process
64
36 Relation to Experimental Results
65
37 Conclusions
66
Knowledge Acquisition by Machine Learning and Data Mining
68
42 Machine Learning Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
71
43 Examples of Progress in Machine Learning and Data Mining
77
44 Scientific Data Mining
79
441 Mining Medical Data
80
442 Mining Genomic and Proteomic Data
82
443 Mining Materials Science Data
83
45 Experiences of Data Mining in Telecommunications
84
451 An Example of Complex Interaction Process
86
452 Event Mining
88
453 Exchanging Tacit Knowledge
90
46 Conclusions
91
Creativity Support in Brainstorming
93
53 Models of the Brainstorming Process
95
54 Software for Brainstorming Support
99
541 The KJ Method and Creative Problem Solving Systems
100
542 GRAPE Decision Support Groupware
103
Group Coordinator
109
55 Novel Approaches to Brainstorming Support
115
551 The Use of Brainstorming in Normal Academic Knowledge Creation
116
552 The Enrichment of Brainstorming by Normal Academic Creative Processes
119
56 Concluding Remarks
126
Debating and Creativity Support
127
62 Existing Software for Supporting Debate and Knowledge Creation
129
622 Specific Software or Platforms for Debate and Knowledge Creation
130
624 Group Argumentation Environment GAE
134
625 Electronic Common Brain ECB
146
63 Rational and Arational Aspects of Debate and Related Software Requirements
148
64 Conclusions
153
Creativity Support for Roadmapping
155
72 Science and Technology Roadmaps
156
73 Roadmapping as a Knowledge Creation Process
161
74 ISystem and Knowledge Creation Support in Roadmapping
163
741 Intervention
165
743 Involvement
166
744 Imagination
167
745 Integration
169
75 Case Studies Making Academic Research Roadmaps in JAIST
170
751 An Interactive Planning IPBased Roadmapping Approach
172
752 A Webbased Roadmapping Support System
178
753 Experience in Applications of Roadmapping at JAIST
181
Roadmaps for Development of FuelCell
183
76 Conclusions
188
Integrated Support for Scientific Creativity
190
82 User Requirements for a CE
192
83 Models of Creative Processes
194
832 Nanatsudaki Model
195
841 Creative Environment at JAIST
196
A Prototype CE at PJIIT
199
85 Scenarios of User Interaction with a CE
201
852 Searching for Related Work
202
853 Describing and Sharing Read Literature
203
856 Planning an Experiment
204
861 Personal Workspace Module
205
863 Group Communication Module
206
864 Planning and Roadmapping Module
207
865 Experiment Module
208
87 Data Representation and Metadata in a CE
209
872 RDFXML File Repositories for Semantic Web Documents
210
88 Security of Information in a CE
211
882 Access Control
212
810 Conclusions
213
Statistics for Creativity Support
215
93 Lessons from Applications of Statistical Tools for Quality Control
218
94 Statistical Experiment Design
222
942 History of Statistical Experiment Design and the Taguchi Method
227
943 A Quadratic Response Surface Approximation
228
95 Possibilities of Creativity Support and Conclusions
230
Virtual Laboratories
233
102 Knowledgebased Problem Solving
234
103 Knowledge Integration
237
1032 Knowledge Integration in Models
239
104 Collaborative Modelling
241
1041 Model Specification
242
1043 Model Analysis
244
106 Laboratory World
246
107 Knowledge Creation by Model Analysis
247
1072 Modelling Technology
248
1073 Model Analysis
249
108 Structured Modelling Technology SMT
251
1137 Development of Business Simulation Exercises
263
Facilitator and Designer
264
1139 Gaming Simulation and Knowledge Creation
265
114 Role Playing and Negotiations for Problem Solving and Idea Formation
266
1142 Usual Reference Points
268
1143 Achievement Functions and Reference Point Approach
270
1144 Special Reference Points
272
1145 The Case of Empty and Extended Core
274
Negotiating a Merger of Hightech Firms
275
1147 Lessons from the Examples and Simulated Negotiations
278
115 Conclusions
279
12 Knowledge Representation and Multiple Criteria Aggregation
281
122 Knowledge Definitions
283
123 Representing Knowledge in Logical Form
285
1232 Decision Tables
287
1233 Decision Trees
289
124 Representing Knowledge in Structural Form
290
1242 Frames
292
1243 Description Logics
293
125 The Problem of Integration of Knowledge
294
126 Multiple Criteria Aggregation for Knowledge Integration
295
1261 An Approach to Multiple Criteria Aggregation Ranking and Classification
297
1262 Compensatory vs Noncompensatory Criteria Subjective vs Objective Ranking
302
1263 Hierarchical Aggregation of Criteria
306
1264 Example of Six Divisions of a Corporation
307
127 MultipleAttribute Aggregation under Uncertainty for Decision Making
309
1271 Problem Description
310
1272 Evaluation Analysis Model
312
1273 DempsterShafer Theory of Evidence
314
1274 The ER Approach for Attribute Aggregation
315
1275 From Extended Decision Matrix to Evaluation Matrix
318
128 Conclusions
319
13 Distance and Electronic Learning
321
132 The Role of Electronic and Distance Learning and Teaching in the Knowledge Civilisation Era
322
133 Current Achievements and Trends of Electronic and Distance Learning
325
1332 The Characteristics of eLearning in a Narrow Sense
326
1333 Searching for a Better Combination of eLearning Technologies
328
the Concept of a Learning Organisation
330
134 Integrated Evolutionary Learning Model from a Practical Point of View
331
1343 Evolutionary Cycling
333
135 Market Driven Development vs Long Term Trends
334
136 Current Trends and Problems of Multimedia Technology
336
137 Ambient Intelligence vs Electronic Learning
338
1371 Features of Intelligent Tutoring Systems and Commercial Standards
340
A Conceptual Model of an Intelligent Tutoring System
342
1373 The Use of Data Mining in Intelligent Tutoring Systems
344
1374 Course Model Log Files and Decision Tables
345
1375 Virtual Students for Testing the Effectiveness of Data Mining Methods
346
1376 Simulations Conditions and Test Results
348
Creativity Support vs Electronic Learning
349
14 Management of Technology in Academic Research
352
142 What is Management of Technology MOT?
354
143 Establishment of MOT Courses at JAIST
357
144 Development of the Foundations of MOT
360
145 Development of MOST
361
from Implicit to Explicit Knowledge
363
147 Experiences and Problems with MOST
365
148 Conclusions
368
15 Knowledge Management and Creative Holism in the Knowledge Age
369
152 Creative Holism Basic Concepts
371
153 The Implication of Knowledge in Organisations
373
1531 Static Substance Knowledge
375
1532 Dynamic Process Knowledge
377
154 Knowledge Management Creative Holism and Creative Space
378
155 Conclusions
383
The Role of Technology in the Knowledge Civilization Era
385
162 The Big Change in Last Fifty Years
386
163 The Era of Knowledge Civilization
387
1632 The Conceptual Platform and the Episteme of a Civilization Era
388
1633 What Happened at the End of the Industrial Civilization Era
391
164 The Three Separate Spheres of Technology Hard Sciences and Social Sciences with Humanities
393
1642 The Dominant Episteme of a Sphere and Its Limitations
395
165 The Views of Philosophy of Technology
396
1652 A Few Acceptable Views
397
1653 The Dangers of Misunderstandings
398
1661 Theories of Instructional Design
399
1662 Soft vs Hard Systems Thinking
402
1663 Postmodern Social Science and Sociology of Science
404
167 What Technology Is and What It Is Not
406
1673 The Sovereign though not Autonomous Position of Technology
407
1674 The Reverse Relation of Science and Technology
408
1675 Two Positive Feedback Loops
410
168 What Will Be the Technology of the Knowledge Era
413
1681 Some Examples of Technology of the Knowledge Era
414
What We Must Be Careful About
415
The Emergence of New Concepts in Science
417
172 Conceptual and Scientific Change
418
173 Mathematical Intuition and Platonism in Mathematics The Idea of the Reconstruction of the Hermeneutical Horizon
420
174 Platonism and Hermeneutical Conditions for Emergence of Concepts
425
175 An Example of Emergence of Concepts in Mathematics
427
1751 The Ancient Intuitive Model of Euclidean Geometry
429
1752 The Emergence of Absolute Space
432
176 The Intuitive Analysis of Concepts
433
177 The Schema of the Intuitive Analysis of Concepts
437
178 Conclusions and Remarks
442
Summary and Conclusions
445
183 The Emergence of an Integrated Episteme of the Knowledge Civilisation Era
456
an Emerging Episteme of the Knowledge Civilisation Era
457
1832 Constructive Evolutionary Objectivism
462
1833 The Problem of Truth in the Knowledge Era
464
184 Concluding Remarks
466
References
469
Index
497
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