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out, rather than spoken; the accents weak, and interrupted, sighs' breaking into the iniddle of sentences and words.
Despair, as in a condemned criminal, or one, who has lost all hope of salvation, bends the eyebrows downward ; clouds the forehead; rolls the eyes round frightfully ; 0pens the mouth towards the ears; bites the lips; wideps the nostrils ; gnashes with the teeth, like a fierce wild beast. The heart is too inuch hardened to suffer tears to flow; yet the eyeballs will be red and inflamed like those of au animal in a rabid state. The head is hung down upon the breast. The arms are bended at the elbows, the fists are clenched hard ; the veins and muscles swelled ; the skin livid ; and the whole body strained and violently agitated ; groans, expressive of inward torture, more frequently uttered than words. If any words, they are few, and
expressed with a sullen, eager bitterness; the tone of voice often loud and furious. As it often drives people to distraction, and self murder, it can hardly be overacted by one, who would represent it.
Fear, violent and suddeu, opens very wide the eyes and mouth; shortens the nose; draws down the eyebrows ; gives the countenance an air of wildness; covers it with a deadly paleness ; draws back the elbows parallel with the sides ; lifts up the open hands, the fingers together, 10 the height of the breast, so that the palms face the dreadful object, as shields opposed against it. One foot is drawn back behind the other, so that the body seems shrinking from the danger, and putting itself in a posture for fight. The heart beats violently ; the breath is fetched quick and short; the whole body is thrown into a general tremor; The voice is weak and trembling; the sentences are short, and the meaning confused and incoherent. Imminent danger, real or fancied, produces in timorous persons, as women and children, violent shrieks without any articulate sound of words; and some:imes irrecoverably confounds the uno derstanding : produces fainting, which is sometimes followed by death.
Shame, or a sense of one's appearing to a disadvantage, before one's fellow creatures ; turns away the face from the beholders ; (avers it with blushes; bangs the head ; casts down the eyes; draws down the eyebrows; either strikes the person dumb, or, if he attempts to say any thing in his own defence, causes his tongue lo faulter and confounds his utterance; and puis bien pou making a thousand gestures
and grimaees, to keep himself in countenance; all of which only heighten the confusion of his appearance.
Remorse, or a painful sense of guilt, casts down the countenance, and clouds it with anxiety ; hangs down the bread, draws the eyebrows down upon the eyes. The right hand beats the breast. The teeth gnash with anguish. The whole body is strained and violently agitated. If this strong femorse is succeeded by the more gracious disposition of penitance, or contrition, then the eyes are raised (but with great appearance of doubting and fear) to the throne of heavenly mercy; and immediately cast down again to the earth. Then foods of tears are seen to flow. The knees are bended ; or the body prostrated on the ground. The arms are spread in a suppliant posture, and the voice of deprecation is uttered with sighs, groans, timidity, hesitatiou and trembling.
Courage, steady and cool, opens the countenance, gives the whole forin an erect and graceful air. The accents are strong, fullmouthed and articulate ; the voice firm and even.
Boasting, or affected courage, is loud, blastering, threatening. The eyes stare ; the eyebrows drawn down; the face red and bloated; the mouth pouts out; the voice hola low and thundering; the arms are set akPnbo; the head often nodding in a menacing manner; and the right fist, clenched, is brandished, from time to time, at the person threatened. The right foot is often stamped upon the ground, and the legs take such large strides, and the steps are so heavy, that the earth seems to tremble under them.
Pride, assumes a lofty look, bordering upon the aspect and attitude of anger. The eyes open, but with the eyea brows considerably drawn down; the mouth pouting out, mostly shut, and ihe lips pinched close, The words walk out astrut, with a slow, stiff, boinbastic affectation of inportance. The arms generally akimho, and the legs at a distance froin one another, taking large tragedy strides.
Obstinacy, adds to the aspect of pride, u dogged sourness, like that of marice. See Malice.
Authority, opens the countenance; but drows down the erebrows a little, so far as to give the look of gravity. See Gravity.
Commanding, requires an air a little more peremptory, with a look a little severe or stern. The hand is held out, and moved toward the person, to whom the order is given, with the palm upwards, and the head nods toward him.
Forbidding, on the contrary, ihrans the head backwards, and pushes the hand from one with the palm downward, as if going to lay it upon the person, to hold him down iminoveable, that he may not do what is forbidden bim.
Affirming, especially with a judicial oath, is expressed by lifting the open right hand, and eyes, toward heaven; or, if conscience is appealed to, by laying the right hand upon the breast.
Denying, is expressed by pushing the open right hand froin one; and turning the face the contrary way.. See Aversion.
Differing, in sentiment, may be expressed as refusing. See Refusing:
Agreeing in opinion, or conviction, as granting. See Granting.
Exhorting, as by a general at the head of his army, requires a kind, complacent look ; unless inatter of offence lias passed, as neglect of duty, or the like,
Judging, demands a grave, steady look, with deep attention, the countenance altogether clear from any appearance of either disgust or favor. The accents slow, distinct, emphatical, accompanied with little action, and that very grave,
Reproving, puts on a stern aspect, roughens the voice, and is accompanied with gestures not much different from those of threotening, but not so lively.
Acquitting, is performed with a benevolent, tranquil coun, tenance, and tone of voice; the right hand, if not both, open, waved gently toward the person acquitted, expressing disinissiori. Ser Dismissing.
Condemning, ilssomes a severe look, but mixed with pity, The sentence is to be expressed as with reluctance.
Teaching, explaining, inculcating, or giving orders to an inferior, requires an air of superiority to be assumed. The features are to be composed to an authoritative gravity, The eye steady, und open, the eyebrows a little drawn down orer it; but not so much as to lool: surly or dogmatical. The tone of voice varying according as the emphasis requires, of which a good deal is necessary in expressing matter of this sort. The pitch of the voice to be strong and clear; the articulation distinct; the utter ce slow, and the manner peremptory. This is the proper manner of pronouncing the commandments in ihe communion office, But (I am sorry to say it) they are too commonly spoken
in the same manner as the prayers, than which nothing can be more unnatural,
Pardoning, differs from acquitting, in that the latter means clearing a person after trial of guilt : whereas the former supposes guilt, and signifies merely delivering the guilty person from punishment. Pardoning requires some degree of severity of aspect and tone of voice, because the pardoned person is not an object of entire opmixed approbation, otherwise its expression is much the same as granting. See Granting.
Arguing requires a cool, sedate, attentive aspect, and a clear, slow, emphatical accent, with much demonstration by the hand. It differs from teaching (see Teaching) in that the look of authority is not wanted in arguing.
Dismissing, with approbation, is done with a kind aspect and tone of voice; the right hand open, gently waved toward the person; with displeasure, besides the look and tone of voice which suit displeasure, the hand is hastily ihrown out toward the person dismissed, the back part toward him, the countenance at the same time lurned away from him.
Refusing, when accompanied with displeasure, is expressed nearly in the same way. Without displeasure, it is done with a visible relactance, which occasions the bringing ont the words slowly, with such a shake of the head, and shrug of the shoulders, as is natural upon hearing of somewhat, which gives us concern.
Granting, when done with unreserved good will, is accompanied with a benerolent aspect, and tone of voice; the right hand pressed to the left breast, to signify how heartily the favor is granted, and the benefactor's joy in conferring it.
Dependence. See Modesty.
Veneration, or worshipping, comprehends several articles, as ascription, confession, remorse, intercession, thanksgiving, deprecation, petition, &c. Ascription of honor and praise to the peerless supreme Majesty of heaven, and confession and deprecation, are to be uttered with all that hu. mility of looks and gesture, which can exhibit the most profound self abasement and annihilation, before One, whose superiority is infinite. The head is a little raised, but with the most apparent timidity and dread; the eye is lifted, but immediately cast down again or closed for a moment ; the eyebrows are drawn down in the most respectful manner; the features, and the whole body and limbs, are all compose ed to the most profound gravity ; one pasture continuing, without considerable change, during the whole performance of the duty. The knees bended, or the whole body prostrate, or if the posture be standing, which scripture does not disallow, bending forward, as ready to prostrate itself. The arms spread out, but modestly, as high as the breast; the hands open. The tone of the voice will be submissive, timid, equal, trembling, weak, suppliant. The words will be brought out with a visible anxiety and diffi. dence approaching to hesitation ; few and slow ; nothing of vain repetition, haganguing, flowers of rhetoric, or affected figures of speech; all simplicity, humility and lowliness, such as becomes a reptile of the dust, when presuming to address Him, whose greatness is tremendous beyond all created conception. In intercession for our fellow creätures which is prescribed in the scriptures, and in thanksgiving, the countenance will naturally assume a small degree of cheerfulness, beyond what it was clothed with in confession of sin, and deprecation of punishment. But all affected ornament of speech or gesture in devotion, deserves the severest censure, as being somewhat much worse than absurd.
Respect, for a superior, puts on the looks and gesture of modesty. See Modesty.
Hope, brightens the countenance; arches the eyebrows ; gives the eyes an eager, wishful look; opens the mouth to a half sinile; bends the body a little forward, the feet equal ; spreads i he arms, with the hands open, as to receive the object of its longings. The tone of the voice is eager, and unevenly inclining to that of joy; but curbed by a degree of doubt and anxiety. Desire differs from hope as to expreso tion, in this particular, that there is more appearance of doubt and anxiety in the former, than in the latter. For it is one thing to desire what is agreeable, and another to have a prospect of actually obtaining it.
Desire, expresses itself by Lending the body forward and stretching the arins toward the object as to grasp it. The couutenance smiling, but eager and wishful; the eye wide open, and eyebrows raised ; the inouth open, tone of voice suppliant, but lively and cheerful, uuless there be distress as well as desire; the expression Avent and copious; if no words are used, sighs instead of them; but this is chiefly in distress.
Love, (successful) lights up the countenance into smiles. The forehead is smoothed and enlarged; the eyebrows are