## Tools for Thought: How to Understand and Apply the Latest Scientific Techniques of Problem SolvingDrawing on general systems theory, operations research, cybernetics, futures research, and catastrophe theory, a distinguished geneticist provides the general reader with tools for perceiving and solving today's complex economic, social, and ecological pr |

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Page 49

For

between different levels of operation which can be considered as levels in a

hierarchical system; for

...

For

**instance**in biology it is convenient, in fact probably essential, to distinguishbetween different levels of operation which can be considered as levels in a

hierarchical system; for

**instance**, the ecological level, which includes all the living...

Page 50

The different classes of interactions need not always be connected with time

scale. If you look at all the cells in the body of an animal, you find that they fall into

groups with strong interactions between those in the same group (for

...

The different classes of interactions need not always be connected with time

scale. If you look at all the cells in the body of an animal, you find that they fall into

groups with strong interactions between those in the same group (for

**instance**all...

Page 227

Then one has to try to put into the model quantitative estimates of the strengths of

interactions between the factors; for

population? These interaction effects ('multipliers' in the system-builder's jargon)

at ...

Then one has to try to put into the model quantitative estimates of the strengths of

interactions between the factors; for

**instance**what effect has pollution onpopulation? These interaction effects ('multipliers' in the system-builder's jargon)

at ...

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actually alternative atoms attractor surface become behaviour better biological C. H. Waddington cells cent chreod Club of Rome complex systems components consider course critical path analysis curve deal described diagram discussed effect epigenetic landscape estimates example experience exploratory forecasting exponential growth fact factors feed-back flats future Games Theory give graph happen homeorhesis human ideas important increase Information Theory input instance interactions involved kind large number living mathematical means measure move natural resources operational research organized particular pay-off table perhaps philosophy pollution population possible practical Prisoner's Dilemma problem processes produce relations relevance tree schismogenesis scientific method scientists sequence shape simple simulation situation sort statistics step strategy structure symmetry techniques Theory things tion turn types U-Boats usually values variables Venn diagram whole