## Tools for Thought: How to Understand and Apply the Latest Scientific Techniques of Problem SolvingDrawing on general systems theory, operations research, cybernetics, futures research, and catastrophe theory, a distinguished geneticist provides the general reader with tools for perceiving and solving today's complex economic, social, and ecological pr |

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Page 90

One can start by using the best

available, both about these values and about the structure of linkages within the

network. Then one can try out the response of the system, as calculated by the

computer, ...

One can start by using the best

**estimates**and informed guesses that areavailable, both about these values and about the structure of linkages within the

network. Then one can try out the response of the system, as calculated by the

computer, ...

Page 176

forecasting, but there are some steps which could not be shortened. For instance,

there are legal obligations to test the substance, administered to a group of

animals ...

**Estimating**the time required for various steps involves a certain amount offorecasting, but there are some steps which could not be shortened. For instance,

there are legal obligations to test the substance, administered to a group of

animals ...

Page 227

Then one has to try to put into the model quantitative

interactions between the factors; for instance what effect has pollution on

population? These interaction effects ('multipliers' in the system-builder's jargon)

at ...

Then one has to try to put into the model quantitative

**estimates**of the strengths ofinteractions between the factors; for instance what effect has pollution on

population? These interaction effects ('multipliers' in the system-builder's jargon)

at ...

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