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and discontinued through the neglect and degeneracy only of later times. Sixtus the Fourth was, if I mistake not, a great collector of books at least.

Letters on History, Vol. I. Let. 6. Bolingbroke The expression nere leads evidently to a wrong sense; the adverb at least

, ought not to be connected with the substantive books, but with collector, thus:

Sixtus the Fourth was a great collector at least of books.
Speaking of Lewis XIV.

If he was not the greatest king, he was the best actor of majesty at least, that ever filled a throne.

Ibid. Letter 7. Better thus :

If he was not the greatest king, he was at least the best actor of majesty, &c. This arrangement removes the wrong sense occasioned by the juxtaposition of majesty and at least.

The following examples are of a wrong arrangement of members:

I have confined myself to those methods for the ar'vancement of piety, which are in the power of a prince limited like ours by a strict exrrution of ihe laws.

A Project for the Advancem. . 6 of Religion. Swift. The structure of this period leads to a meaning which is not the author's, viz. power limited by a strict execution of the laws. That wrong sense is removed by the following arrangement:

I have confined myself to those methods for the advancement of piety, which, oy a strict execution of the laws, are in the power of a prince limited like ours.

This morning, when one of Lady Lizard's daughters was looking over some hoods and ribands brought by her tirewoman, with great care and diligence, 1 employed no less in examining the box which contained them. Guardian, No. 4. The wrong sense occasioned by this arrangement, may be easily prevented by varying it thus:

This morning when, with great care and diligence, one of Lady Lizard's daughters was looking over some hoods and ribands, &c.

A great stone that I happened to find after a long search by the sea-shore, served me for an anchor.

Gulliver's Travels, Part I. Chap. 8. One would think that the search was confined to the sea-shore; but as the meaning is, that the great stone was found by the sea-shore, the period ought to be arranged thus:

A great stone, that, after a long search, I happened to find by the sea-shore, served me for an anchor.

Next of a wrong arrangement where the sense is left doubtful; beginning, as in the former sort, with examples of wrong arrangement of words in a member. These forms of conversation by degrees multiplied and grew troublesome.

Spectator, No. 119. Here it is left doubtful whether the modification by degrees relates to the preceding member or to what follows: it should be,

These forms of convosation multiplied by degrees.

Nor does this false módesty expose us only to such actions as are indiscreet, but very often to such as are highly criminal.

Spectator, No. 458.

The ambiguity is removed by the following arrangement:

Nor does this false modesty expose us to such actions only as are indiscreet, &c.

The empire of Blefuscu is an island situated to the north-east side of Lilliput, from whence it is parted only by a channel of 800 yards wide.

Gulliver's Trarels, Part I. Chap. 5. The ambiguity may be removed thus:

from whence it is parted by a channel of 800 yards wide only.

In the following examples the sense is left doubtful by wrong Arrangement of members.

The minister who grows less by his elevation, like a little statue placed on a mighty pedestal, will always have his jealousy strong about him.

Dissertation upon Parties. Dedication. Bolingbroke. Here, as far as can be gathered from the arrangement, it is doubtful, whether the object introduced by way of simile, relate to what goes before or to what follows: the ambiguity is removed by the following arrangement:

The minister, who, like a little statue placed on a mighty pedestal, grows less by his elevation, will always, &c.

Since this is too much to ask of freemer, nay of slaves, if his erpectation be nol answered, shall he form a lasting division upon such transient motives? lbid. Better :hus:

Since this is too much to ask of freemen, nay of slaves, shall he, if his expectations be not answered, form, &c. Speaking of the superstitious practice of locking up the room where a person of distinction dies:

The knight seeing his habitation reduced to so small a compass, and himself in a manner shut out of his own house, upon the death of his mother, ordered all the apartments to be flung open, and exorcised by his chaplain.

Spectator, No. 110. Better thus:

The knight seeing his habitation reduced to 80 small a compass, and himself in a manner shut out of his own house, ordered, upon the death of his mother, all the apartments to be fung open.

Speaking of some indecencies in conversation:

As it is impossible for such an irrational way of conversation to last long among a people that make any profession of religion,

or show of modesty, if the country gentlemen get into it, they will certainly be left in the lurch.

Spectator, No. 119. The ambiguity vanishes in the following arrangement:

the country gentlemen, if they get into it, will certainly be left in the lurch.

Speaking of a discovery in natural philosophy, that color is not a quality of matter:

As this is a truth which has been proved incontestably by many modern philosophers, and is indeed one of the finest speculations in that science, if the English reader would see the notion explained at large, he may find it in the eighth chapter of the second book of Mr. Locke's Essay on Human Understanding.

Spectator, No. 413. Better thus:

As this is a truth, &c. the English reader, if he would see the notion explained at large, may find it, &c.

A woman seldom asks advice before she has bought her wedding-clothes. When she has made her own choice, for form's sake she sends a conge d'elire to her friends.

Ibid. No. 475. Better thus :

-she sends, for form's sake, a conge d'elire to her friends. And since it is necessary that there should be a perpetual intercourse of buying and selling, and dealing upon credit, where fraud is permitted or connived at, or hath no law to punish it, the honest dealer is always undone, and the knave gets the advantage.

Gulliver's Travels, Part I. Chap. 6. Better thus :

And since it is necessary that there should be a perpetual intercourse of buying and selling, and dealing upon credit, the honest dealer, where fraud is permitted or connived at, or hath no law to punish it, is always undone, and the knave gets the advantage.

From these examples, the following observation will occur, that a circumstance ought never to be placed between two capital members of a period; for by such situation it must always be doubtful, as far as we gather from the arrangement, to which of the two members it belongs: where it is interjected, as it ought to be, between parts of the member to which it belongs, the ambiguity is removed, and the capital members are kept distinct, which is a great beauty in composition. In general, to preserve members distinct that signify things distinguished in the thought, the best method is, to place first in the consequent member, some word that cannot connect with what precedes it.

If it shall be thought, that the objections here are too scrupulous, and that the defect of perspicuity is easily supplied by accurate punctuation; the answer is, that punctuation may remove an ambiguity, but will never produce that peculiar beauty which is perceived when the sense comes out clearly and distincily by means of a happy arrangement. Such influence has this beauty, that by a natural transition of perception it is communicated to the very sound of the words, so as in appearance to improve the music of the period. But as this curious subject comes in more properly afterward, it is suffcient at present to appeal to experience, that a period so arranged as to bring out the sense clear, seems always more musical than where the sense is left in any degree doubtful.

A rule deservedly occupying the second place, is, that words expressing things connected in the thought, ought to be placed as near together as possible. This rule is derived immediately from human nature, prone in every instance to place together things in any manner connected :* where things are arranged according to their connections, we have a sense of order; otherwise ire have a sense of disorder, as of things placed by chance: and we naturally place words in the same order in which we would place the things they signify. The bad effect of a violent separation of words or members thus intimately connected, will appear from the following examples.

For the English are naturally fanciful, and very often disposed, by that glooininess and melancholy of temper which is so frequent in our nation, to many wild notions and visions, to which others are not so líable. Spectator, No. 419,

• See Chap. I.

Here the verb or assertion is, by a pretty long circumstance, riolently separated from the subject to which it refers: this makes a harsh arrangement; the less excusable as the fault is easily prevented by placing the circumstance before the verb, after the following manner :

For the English are naturally fanciful, and, by that gloominess and melancholy of temper which is so frequent in our nation, are often disposed to many wild notions, &c.

For as no mortal author, in the ordinary fate and vicissitude of things, knows to what use his works may, some time or other be applied, &c.

Spectator, No. 85. Better thus: For as, in the ordinary fate and vicissitude of things, no mortal author knows to what use, some time or other, his works may be applied, &c.

From whence we may date likewise the rivalship of the house of France, for we may reckon that of Valois and that of Bourbon as one upon this occasion, and the house of Austria, that continues at this day, and has oft erst so much blood and so much treasure in the course of it.

Letters on History, Vol. I. Let. 6. Bolingbroke. It cannot be impertinent or ridiculous therefore in such a country, whatever it might be in the Abbot of St. Real's, which was Savoy I think; or in Peru, under the Incas, where Garsilasso de la Vega says it was lawful for none but the nobility to study-for men of all degrees to instruct themselves, in those affairs wherein they may be actors, or judges of those that act, or controllers of those that judge.

Letters on History, Vol. I. Let. 5. Bolingbroke. If Scipio, who was naturally given to women, for which anecdote we have, if I mistake not, the authority of Polybius, as well as some verses of Nevius, preserved by Aulus Gellius, had been educated by Olympias at the court of Philip, it is improbable that he would have restored the beautiful Spaniard. Ibid. Let. 3

If any one have a curiosity for more specimens of this kind, they will be found, without number, in the works of the same author.

A pronoun, which saves the naming of a person or thing a seconil time, ought to be placed as near as possible to the name of that person or thing: This is a branch of the foregoing rule; and with the reason there given another concurs, viz. that if other ideas intervene, it is difficult to recall the person or thing by reference:

If I had leave to print the Latin letters transmitted to me from foreign parts, they would fill a volume, and be a full defence against all that Mr. Partridge, or his accomplices of the Portugal inquisition, will be ever able to object; uło, by the way, are the only enemies my predictions have ever met with at home or abroad. Better thus:

and be a full defence against all the objected by Mr. Partridge, or his accomplices of the Portugal inquisition; who, by the way, are, &c.

There being a round million of creatures in human figure, throughout this king: dom, whose whole subsistence, &c.

A Modest Proposal, fc. Svift. Better:

There being throughout this kingdom, a round million of creatures in human figure, whose whole subsistence, &c.

Tom is a lively impudent clown, and has wit enough to have made him a pleasant companion, had it been polished and rectified by good manners.

Guardian, No. 162 It is the custom of the Mahometans, if they see any printed or written paper upon the ground, to take it up, and lay it aside carefully, as not knowing but it may contain some piece of their Alcoran.

Spectator, No. 85.

can

The arrangement here leads to a wrong sense, as if the ground were taken up, not the paper,-Better thus :

It is the custom of the Mahometans, if they see upon the ground any printed or written paper, to take it up, &c.

The following rule depends on the communication of emotions to related objects; a principle in human nature that has an extensive operation : and we find this operation, even where the objects are not otherwise related than by juxtaposition of the words that express them. Hence, to elevate or depress an object, one method is, to join it in the expression with another that is naturally high or low: witness the following speech of Eumenes to the Roman Senate.

Causam veniendi sibi Romam fuisse, præter cupiditatem visendi deos hominesque, quorum beneficio in ea fortuna esset, supra quam ne optare quidem auderet, etiam ut coram moneret senatum ut Persei conatus obviam iret.

Livy, 1. 42. cap. 11. To join the Romans with the gods in the same en inciation, is an artful stroke of flattery, because it tacitly puts them on a level. On the other hand, the degrading or vilifying of an object, is done successfully by ranking it with one that is really low:

I hope to have this entertainment in a readiness for the next winter ; and doubt not but it will please more than the opera or puppet-show. Spectator, No. 28.

Manifold have been the judgments which Heaven from time to time, for the chastisement of a sinful people, has inflicted upon whole nations. For when the degeneracy becomes common, 'tis but just the punishment should be general. Of this kind, in our own unfortunate country, was that destructive pestilence, whose mortality was so fatal as to sweep away, if Sir William Petty may be believed, five millions of Christian souls, besides women and Jews.

God's Revenge against Punning. Arbuthnot. Such also was that dreadful conflagration ensuing in this famous metropolis of London, which consumed, according to the computation of Sir Samuel Moreland, 100,000 houses, not to mention churches and stables.

Ibid. But on condition it might pass into a law, I would gladly exempt both lawyers of all ages, subaltern and field officers, young heirs, dancing-masters, pick-pockets, and players.

An infallible Scheme to pay the Public Debt. Swift.
Sooner let earth, air, sea, to chaos fall,
Men, monkeys, lap-dogs, parrots, perish all.

Rape of the Lock. Circumstances in a period resemble small stones in a building, employed to fill up vacuities among those of a larger size. In the arrangement of a period, such under-parts crowded together make a poor figure; and never are graceful but when interspersed among the capital parts. I illustrate this rule by the following example.

It is likewise urged, that there are, by computation, in this kingdom, above 10,000 parsons, whose revenues, added to those of my Lords the Bishops, would suffice to maintain, &c. Argument against abolishing Christianity. Swift. Here two circumstances, viz. by computation, and in this kingdom, are crowded together unnecessarily; they make a better appearance separated in the following manner:

* His cause for coming to Rome, in addition to his desire of seeing gods and men, by whose kindness he had such good fortune, and more than which he dared not wish for, was that he might openly assure the senate that he was opposed to Perseus.

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