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He, who spends his time in idleness, if he does not become penniless will have but little to bestow on others.
Remark 1.-If the rising inflection be made on penniless, the sense would be perverted, and the passage made to mean, that in order to be able to bestow on others, it is necessary that he should become penniless !
Remark 2.—That clause of a sentence, which is merely introductory to a quotation, should be read with the rising inflection, on the principle of the pause of suspension. Thus, They answered and said, We can not tell. Here the quotation is the direct grammatical object of the verb said, and should not be separated from it by the falling inflection, as though the sense were complete.
Expressions of tender emotion, as of grief, or kindness, commonly incline the voice to the rising inflection.
Oh! shall it be foréver?
from thée—to sever.
Dispense thy balmy stòre !
The penultimate pause, or the last but one in a sentence, usually has the rising inflection.
1. Without controversy, great is the mystery of gòdliness; God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gèntiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.
2. Then, pilgrim, tùrn, thy cares foregò;
All earth-born cares are wròng;
Nor wants that little lòng.
Note I.-The rising inflection is employed at the penult. imate pause in order to promote variety, since the voice generally falls at the end of a sentence.
Note. II.-In some instances, the penultimate pause takes the falling inflection, especially when accompanied with strong emphasis. Thus, ,
1. You wronged yoursèlf, to write in such a càse.
2. All I ask, all I wish, is a tèar. QUESTIONS.—1. What is the Rule for the inflection on the pause of suspension? 2. What inflection has the ordinary direct address ? 3. On what principles? 4. What inflection does the pause of suspension sometimes require? 5. Why? 6. Give an example, and show how the sense would be perverted, if the rising be used. 7. Repeat Rule V. 8. What Rule is given for the inflection at the last pause but one in a sentence? 9. Why is the rising inflection used at the penultimate pause? 10. What inflection generally has the final pause? 11. When does the penultimate take the falling inflection?
RULES FOR THE USE OF INFLECTIONS—continued.
Expressions of strong emotion, as of anger or surprise, and also the language of authority and reproach, are uttered with the falling inflection.
To the dumb stone, Arise, it shall teach!
Bów, stubborn knèes! and hearts with strings of stèel,
Be soft as sinews of the new-born babe.
You blocks, you stones, you worse than useless things,
Ye heavenly guàrds !
Bìd the wild lawless winds obey thy will;
But tèll not misery's son--that life is fair. Note I.-The direct address, when accompanied with strong emphasis ; exclamations, not expressive of tender. emotion or used as questions; the language of terror and denunciation ; are included in this rule, and expressed with the falling inflection.
1. Wõe unto thee, Choràzin, Wòe unto thee, Bethsaida!
“Te àrms! they còme! the Greek! the Grèek !" 4. What a piece of work is màn! How noble in rèason! How infi níte in fàculties! In form and múving, how express and admirable! In áction, how like an àngel! In apprehension, how like a god!
Remark. This Rule is the reverse of Rule V., having reference to expressions of emotions of an opposite nature,that to those of kindness, this of unkindness; that of delicate affection, this of excited passion. Generally, expressions which come under this Rule, are accompanied with strong emphasis, while those of Rule V, with a slight stress of voice.
Emphatic succession of particulars, and emphatic repetition, require the falling inflection.
EXAMPLES. 1. True gentleness teaches us to bear one another's bùrdens; to rejoice with those who rejỏice; to weep with those that wèep; to please every one his neighbor for his good; to be kind and tender hearted; to be pitiful and courteous; to support the weak; and to be patient toward all men. 2. This, this, is thinking frèe, a thought that grasps
Beyond a gràin, and looks beyond an hour.
Of the great toinb of màn. Remark 1.-Whatever inflection may have been given a word or passage, when first expressed, it has the falling, if repeated. The reason of this is, by the variation of the voice, to arrest the attention, which otherwise might not be secured, or to fix more intently on the mind some important word or passage, which, without this inflection, might escape notice. Thus, when a person is repeatedly addresa, ed, as, “ Hénry, Hènry ;' “ Abrahám, Abrahàm.” So, also, to fix the attention on each, the falling inflection is used in case of an emphatic succession of particulars.
Note I.-The stress of voice on each successive particu. lar, should gradually be increased as the subject advances. In general the same may be said in regard to each repetition.
Remark 2.--This Rule has reference to the reading of passages, which are, in some instances, so very similar to those embraced under the rule for the pause of suspension, which requires the rising inflection, that it is often difficult to determine which reading is to be preferred. Whichever inflection prevails, will depend on the degree of emphasis necessarily employed. If the sense requires an intense degree, this rựle is applicable, if only a slight degree, that of the pause of suspension.
Questions.--1. What is Rule VII.? 2. What other particulars, besides those first mentioned, are embraced in this rule? 3. In what respect does this Rule differ from Rule V.? 4. Repeat Rule VIII. 5. What reason can you assign for the use of the falling inflection in cases of repetition? 6. What, in the case of a succession of particulars? 7. With what stress of voice should each successive particular be read? 8. To the passages of what other Rule, are those of this similar? 9. How do you do termine which reading should prevail ?
CIRCUMFLEX.-Rule for its use.
The Circumflex is mainly employed in the language of irony, and in expressing ideas implying some condition, either expressed or understood.
Whose daggers have stabb’d Cesar.
I wărrant him a wảrrior tried.
Is now become a göd; and Cassius,
4. He is a good scholar, though his advantages have been small.
5. He would like to enjoy the reputătion of a good reader, though he nas not the perseverance requisite to become one. 6. Men are willing to endure the most severe toil to gain wealth.
Remark 1.-By the use of the circumflex in the last example, there is suggested some negative circumstance, as fol. lows, “though they will take no pains to gain knowledge." If one inquires of another concerning the state of a friend, who is dangerously sick, and should receive the reply, “ he is bětter,” the use of the circumflex would denote that he is still dangerously sick ; but if he replies," he is better," the falling inflection would convey the idea of a positive amendment and hopes of recovery,
2. It has been previously remarked, that the rising inflection and circumflex are so nearly allied, that, in many instances, it may be very difficult to determine which should receive the preference in the reading of a passage. This is particularly the case where intense inflection is not required. But the difference between the circumflex and the falling inflection is so obvious, as it regards the modification of the voice, as connected with the true meaning of whatever is read, that no one would be liable to mistake which should be employed. The one implies a conditional assertion, the lattersdenotes a positive one.
3. The most important rules for the use of inflections, have now been presented. Those whose early instruction has been judicious, and whose reading books have been of the right character, will find no difficulty in applying them, provided that familiarity with their principles be acquired, which is necessary.
4. In order that a practical knowledge of these rules be acquired, and that the judgment be improved in discriminating the difference in inflections, it is particularly recommended that the exercise of marking the different inflections, which the utterance of various passages may require, be adopted by the reader--referring, at the same time, to the several Rules for such notation. For this purpose portions of the reading lessons
be selected. It can not be too earnestly urged on all who are desirous of becoming familiar with the prin. ciples of inflection, to adopt this, or some similar practice, It will be found not only a pleasing exercise, but likewise the most direct means of applying, practically, what is otherwise learned only in theory.