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PREAMBLE. Section 1. The name of the Union. 2. Each State is sovereign and in

dependent, 3. The object of the Union of the

several States. 4. Mutual friendship between the

people of the different States.Criminals fleeing from justice to be given up. The acts of the courts of one State to be ac

cepted by all the others. 5. Organization and maintenance of

Congress.-Representation of each State in Congress.-Free

dom of speech and debate. 6. States may not enter into any

treaty or alliance with any king, prince or state.-May not enter into any alliance between themselves.-May not layimposts or duties.-Restrictions in regard to vessels of war and armed forces in time of peace. -May not engage in war with

out the consent of Congress. 7. The Legislature to appoint cer

tain military officers. 8. How expenses incurred for mu

tual defense are paid. The Legislatures of the States to

levy taxes. 9. The Congress has power to de

clare peace or war.--To enter


into treaties.-TO decide the manner of dividing prizes taken by land or sea.-To appoint courts for trying piracies and felonies.-To decide disputes between States.-Manner of appointing judges and commissioners.-Regarding controversies as to private right of soil claimed under different grants. -Alloy and value of coin.-In regard to Indians.-Officers of land forces.-01 the naval forces.-Certain committees to be appointed.-To build and equip a navy.-Number of land forces.-Certain things Congress may not do without the assent of nine States.-Congress has power to adjourn.-Journal

of proceedings to be published. 10. Certain powers vested in State

committees. 11. Canada may be admitted into

the Union.-Other colonies may

be admitted. 12. Debts contracted and money bor

rowed under authority of Con

gress. 13. Every State shall abide by the

determinations of Congress.Articles of confederation inviol. able.-Shall not be altered unless agreed to in a Congress of the United States.

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, between the

States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

ARTICLE I. The style of this confederacy shall be "The United States of America."

ARTICLE II. Each State retains its sovereignty, freedom and independen and every power, jurisdiction and right which is not by this c federation expressly delegated to the United States in Congo assembled.

ARTICLE III. The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league friendship with each other, for their common defense, the secu of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, bind themselves to assist each other against all force offered to attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of relig sovereignty, trade or any other pretense whatever.

ARTICLE IV. Section 1. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual fri ship and intercourse among the people of the different Stat this Union, the free inhabitant of each of these States (pau vagabonds and fugitives from justice excepted), shall be en to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the se States, and the people of each State shall have free ingress regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy there the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same d impositions and restrictions, as the inhabitants thereof r tively, provided that such restrictions shall not extend so to prevent the removal of property imported into any Sta any other State, of which the owner is an inhabitant: Prol Also, that no imposition, duties or restrictions shall be 1 any State on the property of the United States, or either of

Sec. 2. If any person guilty of, or charged with treas ony or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall flee fro tice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, u demand of the Governor or executive power of the Stat which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State jurisdiction of his offense.

Sec. 3. Full faith and credit shall be given in each States, to the records, acts and judicial proceedings of th and magistrates of every other State.

ARTICLE V. Section 1. For the more convenient management of eral interests of the United States, delegates shall be

appointed in such manner as the Legislature of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, of every year, with a power reserved to each State to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the year.

Sec. 2. No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years, in any term of six years, nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or any other for his benefit, receives any salary, fees, or emolument of any kind.

Sec. 3. Each State shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the committee of these States.

Sec. 4. In determining questions in the United States in Con. gress assembled, each State shall have one vote.

Sec. 5. Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests and imprisonments during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.


Section 1. No State, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance or treaty, with any king, prince or State, nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, or any of them, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign State; nor shall the United States, in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.

Sec. 2. No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation or alliance whatever, between them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.

IN CONGRESS, January 18, 1777. Ordered:

That an authenticated copy of the Declaration of Independenoy, with the names of the Members of Congress subscribing thr same, be sent to each of the United States, and that they be desired to have the same put on record. By order of Congress.


President. Attest: CHAS. THOMSON,

A true copy,




All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defense or general welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several States, in proportion to the value of all land within each State, granted to or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated, according to such mode as the United States in Congress assembled shall, from time to time, direct and appoint. The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the Legislatures of the several States within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled.

ARTICLE IX. Section 1. The United States in Congress assembled shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article, of sending and receiving ambassadors; entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty of commerce shall be made whereby the legislative power of the respective States shall be restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodi. ties whatsoever; of establishing rules for deciding in all cases what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United States shall be divided or appropriated; of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace; appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas; and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of captures; provided that no member of Congress shall be appointed a judge of any of the said courts.

Sec. 2. The United States in Congress assembled shall also be the last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting, or that hereafter may arise between two or more States concerning boundary, jurisdiction or any other cause whatever; which authority shall always be exercised in the manner following: Whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent of any State in controversy with another, shall pre

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