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comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or confession in
Sec. 13. The laws shall not be suspended but by the Legislature or its authority.
Sec. 14. No person shall be subject to corporal punishment under military law, except such as are employed in the army or navy, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger.
Sec. 15. The people have a right at all times in an orderly and peaceable manner to assemble to consult upon the common good, to give instructions to their representatives, and to request, of either department of the government by petition or remonstrance, redress of their wrongs and grievances.
Sec. 16. Every citizen has a right to keep and bear arms for the common defense; and this right shall never be questioned.
Sec. 17. No standing army shall be kept up in time of peace without the consent of the Legislature, and the military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.
Sec. 18. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner or occupant, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Sec. 19. Every person, for an injury done him in his person, reputation, property or immunities, shall have remedy by due course of law; and right and justice shall be administered freely and without sale, completely and without denial, promptly and without delay.
Sec. 20. In all civil suits, and in all controversies concerning property, the parties shall have a right to a trial by jury, except in cases where it has heretofore been otherwise practiced; the party claiming the right may be heard by himself and his counsel, or either, at his election.
Sec. 21. Private property shall not be taken for public uses without just compensation; nor unless the public exigencies require it.
Sec. 22. No tax or duty shall be imposed without the consent of the people or of their representatives in the Legislature.
Sec. 23. No title of nobility or hereditary distinction, privilege, honor or emolument, shall ever be granted or confirmed, nor shall any office be created, the appointment to which shall be for a longer time than during good behavior.
Sec. 24. The enumeration of certain rights shall not impair nor deny others retained by the people.
Electors, Section 1. Every male citizen of the United States of the age of twenty-one years and upwards, excepting paupers, persons under guardianship, and Indians not taxed, having his residence established in this State for the term of three months next preceding any election, shall be an elector for Governor, Senators and Representatives, in the town or plantation where his residence is so established ; and the elections shall be by written ballot. But persons in the military, naval or marine service of the United States, or this State, shall not be considered as having obtained such established residence by being stationed in any garrison, barrack, or military place, in any town or plantation ; nor shall the residence of a student at any seminary of learning entitle him to the right of suffrage in the town or plantation where such seminary is established. No person, however, shall be deemed to have lost his residence by reason of his absence from the State in the military service of the United States, or of this State.
Sec. 2. Electors shall, in all cases, except treason, felony or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest on the days of election, during their attendance at, going to, and returning therefrom.
Sec. 3. No elector shall be obliged to do duty in the militia on any day of election, except in time of war or public danger.
Sec. 4. The election of Governor, Senators and Representatives shall be on the second Monday in September annually forever. But citizens of the State absent therefrom in the military service of the United States or of this State, and not in the regular army of the United States, being otherwise qualified electors, shall be allowed to vote on Tuesday next after the first Monday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four, for Governor and Senators, and their votes shall be counted and allowed in the same manner, and with the same effect, as if given on the second Monday of September in that year. And they shall be allowed to vote for Governor, Senators and Representatives on the second Monday of September annually thereafter forever, in the manner herein provided. On the day of election a poll shall be opened at every place without this State where a regiment, battalion, battery, company, or detachment of no less than twenty soldiers from the State of Maine, may be found or stationed, and every citizen of said State of the age of twenty-one years, in such military service, shall be entitled to vote as aforesaid ; and he shall be considered as voting in the city, town, plantation and county in this State where he resided when he entered the service. The vote shall be taken by regiments when it can conveniently be done; when not so convenient, any detachment or part of a regiment not less than twenty in number, and any battery or part thereof numbering twenty or more, shall be entitled to vote wherever they may be. The three ranking officers of such regiment, battalion, battery, company, or part of either, as the case may be, acting as such on the day of election, shall be supervisors of election. If no officers, then three non-commissioned officers according to their seniority shall be such supervisors. If any officer or non-commissioned officer shall neglect or refuse to act, the next in rank shall take his place. In case there are no officers or commissioned officers present, or if they or either of them refuse to act, the electors present, not less than twenty, may choose, by written ballot, enough of their own number, not exceeding three, to fill the vacancies, and the persons so chosen shall be supervisors of election. All supervisors shall be first sworn to support the Constitution of the United States and of this State, and faithfully and impartially to perform the duties of supervisors of elections. Each is authorized to administer the necessary oath to the others ; and certificates thereof shall be annexed to the lists of votes by them to be made and returned into the office of the Secretary of State of this State as hereinafter provided. The polls shall be opened and closed at such hours as the supervisors, or a majority of them, shall direct ; provided, however, that due notice and sufficient time shall be given for all voters in the regiment, battalion, battery, detach ment, company, or part of either, as the case may be, to vote. Regimental and field officers shall be entitled to vote with their respective commands. When not in actual command, such officers, and also all general and staff officers and all surgeons,
assistant surgeons, and chaplains, shall be entitled to vote at any place where polls are opened. The supervisors of elections shall prepare a ballot box or other suitable receptacle for the ballots. Upon one side of every ballot shall be printed or written the name of the county and also of the city, town or plantation of this State, in which is the residence of the person proposing to vote. Upon the other side shall be the name or names of the persons to be voted for, and the office or offices which he or they are intended to fill. And before receiving any vote, the supervisors, or a majority of them, must be satisfied of the age and citizenship of the person claiming to vote, and that he has in fact a residence in the county, city, town or plantation which is printed or written on the vote offered by him. If his right to vote is challenged, they may require him to make true answers, upon oath, to all interrogatories touching his age, citizenship, residence, and right to vote, and shall hear any other evidence offered by him, or by those who challenge his right. They shall keep correct poll-lists of the names of all persons allowed to vote, and of their respective places of residence in this State, and also the number of the regiment and company or battery to which they belong ; which lists shall be certified by them or by a majority of them, to be correct, and that such residence is in accordance with the indorsement of the residence of each voter on his vote. They shall check the name of every person before he is allowed to vote, and the check mark shall be plainly made against his name on the poll-lists. They shall sort, count and publicly declare the votes at the head of their respective commands on the day of election, unless prevented by the public enemy, and in that case as soon thereafter as may be; and on the same day of said declaration they shall form a list of the persons voted for, with the number of votes for each person against his name, and the office which he was intended to fill, and shall sign and seal up such list and cause the same, together with the poll-lists aforesaid, to be delivered into the office of the Secretary of State aforesaid, on or before the first day of December, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four, and on or before the fifteenth day of November annually thereafter forever. The Legislature of this State may pass any law additional to the foregoing provisions, if any shall, in practice, be found necessary in order more fully to carry into effect the purpose thereof.
Distribution of Powers. Section 1. The powers of this government shall be divided into three distinct departments, the legislative, executive and judicial.
Sec. 2. No person or persons, belonging to one of these departments, shall exercise any of the powers properly belonging to either of the others, except in the cases herein expressly directed or permitted.
PART FIRST. Legislative Power, House of Representatives. Section 1. The legislative power shall be vested in two distinct branches, a House of Representatives, and a Senate, each to have a negative on the other, and both to be styled the Legislature of Maine, and the style of their acts and laws shall be “ Be is enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in Legislature assembled."
Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall consist of one hundred and fifty-one members, to be elected by the qualified electors, for one year from the day next preceding the annual meeting of the Legislature. The Legislature, which shall first be convened under this Constitution, shall, on or before the fifteenth day of August, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-one, and the Legislature, within every subsequent period of at most ten years, and at least five, cause the number of the inhabitants of the State to be ascertained, exclusive of foreigners not naturalized and Indians not taxed. The number of Representatives shall, at the several periods of making such enumeration, be fixed and apportioned among the several counties as near as may be, according to the number of inhabitants, having regard to the relative increase of population. The number of Representatives shall, on said first apportionment, be not less than one hundred nor more than one hundred and fifty.
Sec. 3. Each town having fifteen hundred inhabitants may elect one Representative; each town having three thousand seven hundred and fifty may elect two ; each town having six thousand seven hundred and fifty may elect three ; each town