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PUBLIC EDUCATION Art. 224. There shall be free public schools established by the General Assembly throughout the State for the education of all the children of the State between the ages of six and eighteen years; and the General Assembly shall provide for their establishment, maintenance and support by taxation or other. wise. And all moneys so raised, except the poll tax, shall be distributed to each parish in proportion to the number of chil. dren between the ages of six and eighteen years.

Art. 225. There shall be elected by the qualified electors of the State a Superintendent of Public Education, who shall hold his office for the term of four years, and until his successor is qualified. His duties shall be prescribed by law, and he shall receive an annual salary of two thousand dollars. The aggregate annual expenses of his office, including his salary, shall not exceed the sum of three thousand dollars. The General Assem. bly shall provide for the appointment of parish boards of publio education for the different parishes.

The parish boards may appoint a parish superintendent of public schools in their respective parishes, who shall be ex officio secretary of the parish board, and whose salary for his double functions shall not exceed two hundred dollars annually, except that in the parish of Orleans the salary of the parish superintendent shall be fixed by the General Assembly, to be paid out of the public school fund accruing to each parish respectively.

Art. 226. The general exercises in the public schools shall be conducted in the English language and the elementary branches taught therein: Provide, That these elementary branches may also be taught in the French language in those parishes in the State or localities in said parishes where the French language predominates, if no additional expense is incurred thereby.

Art. 227. The funds derived from the collection of the polltax shall be applied exclusively to the maintenance of the public schools as organized under this Constitution, and shall be applied exclusively to the support of the public schools in the parish in wbich the same shall be collected, and shall be accounted for and paid by the collecting officers directly to the competent school authorities of each parish.

Art. 228. No funds raised for the support of the public schools of the State shall be appropriated to or used for the support of any sectarian schools.

Art. 229. The school funds of this State shall consist of:

1. The proceeds of taxation for school purposes, as provided in this Constitution.

2. The interest on the proceeds of all public lands heretofore granted by the United States for the use and support of the public schools.

3. Of lands and other property which may hereafter be bequeathed, granted or donated to the State, or generally for school purposes.

4. All funds or property, other than unimproved lands, bequeathed or granted to the State, not designated for other purposes.

5. The proceeds of vacant estates falling under the law to the State of Louisiana.

The Legislature may appropriate to the same fund the proceeds, in whole or in part, of public lands not designated for any other purpose, and shall provide that every parish may levy a tax for the public schools therein, which shall not exceed the State tax: Provided, That with such tax the whole amount of parish taxes shall not exceed the limits of parish taxation fixed by this Constitution.

CONCERNING A STATE UNIVERSITY. Art. 230. The University of Louisiana, as at present established and located at New Orleans, is hereby recognized in its three departments, to wit: The law, the medical and the academical departments, to be governed and controlled by appropri. ate faculties.

The General Assembly shall, from time to time, make such provision for the proper government, maintenance and support of said State University of Louisiana, and all the departments thereof, as the public necessities and well-being of the people of the State of Louisiana may require, not to exceed ten thousand dollars annually.

The Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, now established and located in the city of Baton Rouge, is hereby recognized, and all revenues derived and to be derived from the sales of land or land script, donated by the

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United States to the State of Louisiana, for the use of a seminary of learning and mechanical and agricultural college, shall be appropriated exclusively to the maintenance and support of said University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, and the General Assembly shall from time to time make such additional appropriations for the maintenance and support of said Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College as the public necessities and the well-being of the people of the State of Louisiana may require, not to exceed ten thousand dollars annually.

Art. 231. The General Assembly shall also establish in the city of New Orleans a university for the education of persons of color, provide for its proper government, and shall make an annual appropriation of not less than five thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars for its maintenance and support.

Art. 232. Women over twenty-one years of age shall be eligible to any office of control or management under the school laws of this State. The Free School Fund, Seminary Fund and Agricultural and

and Mechanical College Fund. Art. 233. The debt due by the State to the free school fund is hereby declared to be the sum of one million one hundred and thirty thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven and 51-100 dollars in principal, and shall be placed on the books of the Auditor and Treasurer to the credit of the several townships entitled to the same; the said principal being the proceeds of the sales of lands heretofore granted by the United States for the use and support of free public schools, which amount shall be held by the State as a loan and shall be and remain a perpetual fund, on which the State shall pay an annual interest of four per cent from the first day of January, 1880, and that said interest shall be paid to the several townships in the State entitled to the same, in accordance with the act of Congress, No. 68, approved February 15, 1843; and the bonds of the State heretofore issued, belonging to said fund and sold under act of the General Assembly, No. 81, of 1872, are hereby declared null and void, and the General Assembly shall make no provision for their payment and may cause them to be destroyed.

The debt due by the State to the seminary fund is hereby declared to be one hundred and thirty-six thousand dollars, being the proceeds of the sales of lands heretofore granted by the United States to the State for the use of a seminary of learning, and said amount shall be placed to the credit of said fund on the books of the Auditor and Treasurer of the State as a perpetual loan, and the State shall pay an annual interest of four per cent on said amount from January 1, 1880, for the use of said seminary of learning; and the consolidated bonds of the State now held for use of said fund shall be null and void after the first day of January, 1880, and the General Assembly shall never make any provision for their payment, and they shall be destroyed in such manner as the General Assembly may direct.

The debt due by the State to the Agricultural and Mechanical College fund is hereby declared to be the sum of one hundred and eighty two thousand three hundred and thirteen and 3-100 dollars, being the proceeds of the sales of lands and land scrip heretofore granted by the United States to this State for the use of a college for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts; said amounts shall be placed to the credit of said fund on the books of the Auditor and Treasurer of the State as a perpetual loan, and the State shall pay an annual interest of five per cent on said amount from January 1, 1880, for the use of said Agricultural and Mechanical College; the consolidated bonds of the State now held by the State for the use of said fund shall be null and void after the first day of January, 1880, and the General Assembly shall never make any provision for their payment, and they shall be destroyed in such manner as the General Assembly may direct.

The interest provided for by this article shall be paid out of any tax that may be levied and collected for the general purposes of public education.

CORPORATIONS AND CORPORATE RIGHTS. Art. 234. The General Assembly shall not remit the forfeiture of the charter of any corporation now existing, nor renew, alter or amend the same, nor pass any general or special law for the benefit of such corporation, except upon the condition that such corporation shall thereafter hold its charter subject to the provisions of this Constitution.

Art. 235. The exercise of the police power of the State shall never be abridged nor so construed as to permit corporations to conduct their business in such manner as to infringe the equal rights of individuals or the general well-being of the State.

Art. 236. No foreign corporation shall do any business in this State without having one or more known places of business and an authorized agent or agents in the State upon whom process may be served.

Art. 237. No corporation shall engage in any business other than that expressly authorized in its charter or incidental thereto, nor shall it take or hold any real estate for a longer period than ten years, except such as may be necessary and proper for its legitimate business or purposes.

Art. 238. No corporation shall issue stock nor bonds, except for labor done or money or property actually received, and all fictitious issues of stock shall be void, and any corporation issuing such fictitious stock shall forfeit its charter.

Art. 239. The stock shall not be increased, except in pursuance of general laws, nor without consent of persons holding the larger amount in value of the stock, first obtained at a meeting of stockholders to be held after thirty days' notice given in pursuance of law.

Art. 240. The term corporation, as used in this Constitution, shall be construed to include all joint-stock companies or associations having any power or privileges not possessed by individuals or partnerships.

Art. 241. It shall be a crime, the nature and punishment of which shall be prescribed by law, for any president, director, manager, cashier or other officer or owner of any private or public bank or banking institution to assent to the reception of deposits, or the creation of debts by such banking institution, after he shall have had knowledge of the fact that it is insolvent or in failing circumstances; any such officer, agent or manager shall be individually responsible for such deposits so received and all such debts so created with his assent.

Art. 242. The General Assembly shall have power to enact general laws authorizing the parochial or municipal authorities of the State, under certain circumstances, by a vote of the majority of the property taxpayers in numbers and in value, to levy special taxes in aid of the public improvements or railway enterprises: Provided, That such tax shall not exceed the rate of five mills per annum nor extend for a longer period than ten years.

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