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or exclusive privileges or immunities, by a vote of two-thirds of each branch of the General Assembly; and no exclusive privi. leges, except as in this article provided, shall ever be granted.

ARTICLE IX.
EDUCATION AND SCHOOL LANDS.

1st.- Education. Section 1. The educational interest of the State, including common schools and other educational institutions, shall be under the management of a Board of Education, which shall consist of the Lieutenant-Governor, who shall be the presiding officer of the board, and have the casting vote in case of a tie, and one member to be elected from each judicial district in the State.

Sec. 2. No person shall be eligible as a member of said board who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and shall have been one year a citizen of the State.

Sec. 3. One member of said board shall be chosen by the qualified electors of each district, and shall hold the office for the term of four years, and until his successor is elected and qualified. After the first election under this Constitution, the board shall be divided, as nearly as practicable, into two equal classes, and the seats of the first class shall be vacated after the expiration of two years; and one-half of the board shall be chosen every two years thereafter.

Sec. 4. The first session of the Board of Education shall be held at the seat of government, on the first Monday of December, after their election; after which the General Assembly may fix the time and place of meeting.

Sec. 5. The session of the board shall be limited to twenty days, and but one session shall be held in any one year, except upon extraordinary occasions, when, upon the recommendation of two-thirds of the board, the Governor may order a special session.

Sec. 6. The Board of Education shall appoint a secretary, who shall be the executive officer of the board, and perform such duties as may be imposed upon him by the board, and the laws of the State. They shall keep a journal of their proceedings, whicih shall be published and distributed in the same manner as the journals of the General Assembly.

Sec. 7. All rules and regulations made by the board shall be published and distributed to the several counties, townships and school districts, as may be provided for by the board, and when so made, published and distributed, they shall have the force and effect of law.

Sec. 8. The Board of Education shall have full power and authority to legislate and make all needful rules and regulations in relation to Common Schools, and other educational institutions, that are instituted, to receive aid from the School or University fund of this State; but all acts, rules, and regulations of said Board may be altered, amended or repealed by the General Assembly; and when so altered, amended, or repealed they shall not be re-enacted by the Board of Education.

Sec. 9. The Governor of the State shall be, ex-officio, a member of said Board.

Sec. 10. The Board shall have no power to levy taxes, or make appropriations of money. Their contingent expenses shall be provided for by the General Assembly.

Sec. 11. The State University shall be established at one place without branches at any other place, and the University fund shall be applied to that institution and no other.

Sec. 12. The Board of Education shall provide for the education of all the youths of the State, through a system of common schools, and such schools shall be organized and kept in each School District at least three months in each year. Any District failing, for two consecutive years, to organize and keep up a school, as aforesaid, may be deprived of their portion of the School Fund.

Sec. 13. The members of the Board of Education shall each receive the same per diem during the time of their session, and mileage going to and returning therefrom, as members of the General Assembly.

Sec. 14. A majority of the Board shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business; but no rule, regulation, or law, for the government of Common Schools or other educational institutions, shall pass without the concurrence of a majority of all the members of the Board, which shall be expressed by the yeas and nays on the final passage. The style of all acts of the Board shall be, “Be it enacted by the Board of Education of the State of Iowa."

Sec. 15. At any time after the year One thousand, eight hundred and sixty-three, the General Assembly shall have power

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to abolish or reorganize said Board of Education, and provide for the educational interest of the State in any other manner that to them shall seem best and proper.

20.--School Funds and School Lands. Section 1. The educational and school funds and lands, shall be under the control and management of the General Assembly of this State.

Sec. 2. The University lands, and the proceeds thereof, and all moneys belonging to said fund shall be a permanent fund for the sole use of the State University. The interest arising from the same shall be annually appropriated for the support and benefit of said University.

Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall encourage, by all suitable means, the promotion of intellectual, scientific, moral, and agricultural improvement. The proceeds of all lands that have been, or hereafter may be, granted by the United States to this State, for the support of schools, which may have been, or shall hereafter be sold, or disposed of, and the five hundred thousand acres of land granted to the new States, under an

act of Congress, distributing the proceeds of the public lands among the several States of the Union, approved in the year of cur Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-one, and all estates of deceased persons who may have died without leaving a will or heir, and also such per cent, as has been or may hereafter be granted by Congress, on the sale of lands in this State, shall be, and remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which, together with all rents of the unsold lands, and such other means as the General Assembly may provide, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of Common schools throughout the State.

Sec. 4. The money which may have been or shall be paid by persons as an equivalent for exemption from military duty and the clear proceeds of all fines collected in the several Counties for any breach of the penal laws, shall be exclusively applied, in the several Counties in which such money is paid, or fine collected, among the several school districts of said Counties, in proportion to the number of youths subject to enumeration in such districts, to the support of Common Schools, or the establishment of libraries, as the Board of Education shall, from time to time provide.

Sec. 5. The General Assembly shall take measures for the protection, improvement, or other disposition of such lands as have been, or may hereafter be reserved, or granted by the United States, or any person or persons, to this State, for the use of the University, and the funds accruing from the rents or sale of such lands, or from any other source for the purpose aforesaid, shall be, and remain, a permanent fund, the interest of which shall be applied to the support of said University, for the promotion of literature, the arts and sciences, as may be authorized by the terms of such grant. And it shall be the duty of the General Assembly as soon as may be, to provide effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the funds of said University.

Sec. 6. The financial agents of the school funds shall be the same, that by law, receive and control the State and county revenue for other civil purposes, under such regulations as may be provided by law.

Sec. 7. The money subject to the support and maintenance of common schools shall be distributed to the districts in proportion to the number of youths, between the ages of five and twenty-one years, in such manner as may be provided by the General Assembly.

ARTICLE X.

Amendments to the Constitution, Section 1. Any amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in either House of the General Assembly; and if the same shall be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each of the two Houses, such proposed amendment shall be entered on their journals, with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the legislature to be chosen at the next general election, and shall be published, as provided by law, for three months previous to the time of making such choice; and if, in the General Assembly so next chosen as aforesaid, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to, by a majority of all the members elected to each House, then it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to submit such proposed amendment or amendments to the people in such manner, and at such time as the General Assembly shall provide; and if the people shall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments, by a majority of the electors qualified to vote for members of the General Assembly, voting thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become a part of the Constitution of this

State.

Sec. 2. If two or more amendments shall be submitted at the same time they shall be submitted in such manner that the electors shall vote for or against each of such amendments separately.

Sec. 3. At the general election to be held in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy, and in each tenth year thereafter, and also at such times as the General Assembly may, by law, provide, the question, “Shall there be a Convention to

a revise the Constitution, and amend the same ?" shall be decided by the electors qualified to vote for members of the General Assembly; and in case a majority of the electors so qualified, voting at such election for and against such proposition, shall decide in favor of a convention for such purpose, the General Assembly, at its next session, shall provide by law for the election of delegates to such Convention.

ARTICLE XI.

Miscellaneous. Sec. 1. The jurisdiction of Justices of the Peace shall extend to all civil cases, (except cases in chancery, and cases where the question of title to real estate may arise,) where the amount in controversy does not exceed one hundred dollars, and by the consent of parties may be extended to any amount not exceding three hundred dollars.

Sec. 2. No new county shall be hereafter Created containing less than four hundred and thirty-two square miles; nor shall the territory of any organized county be reduced below that area; except the County of Worth, and the counties west of it, along the Northern boundary of this State, may be organized without additional territory.

Sec. 3. No county, or other political or municipal corporation, shall be allowed to become indebted in any manner, or for any purpose, to an amount, in the aggregate, exceeding five per centum on the value of the taxable property within such county or corporation-to be ascertained by the last State and county tax lists, previous to the incurring of such indebtedness.

Sec. 4. The boundaries of the State may be enlarged, with the consent of Congress and the General Assembly.

Sec. 5. Every person elected or appointed to any office, shall, before entering upon the duties thereof, take an oath or affirmation to support the Constitution of the United States, and of this State, and also an oath of office.

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