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companies having or exercising any of the powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships.

Sec. 17. Dues from private corporations shall be secured by such means as may be prescribed by law, but in no case shall any stockholder be individually liable in any amount over or above the amount of stock owned by him.

Sec. 18. That no incorporated company, or any association of persons or stock company, in the State of Idaho, shall directly or indirectly combine or make any contract with any other incorporated company, foreign or domestic, through their stockholders or the trustees or assignees of such stockholders, or in any manner whatsoever, for the purpose of fixing the price or regulating the production of any article of commerce or of produce of the soil, or of consumption by the people; and that the Legislature be required to pass laws for the enforcement thereof, by adequate penalties, to the extent, if necessary for that purpose, of the forfeiture of their property and franchise.


Corporations, Municipal. Section 1. The Legislature shall provide by general laws for the incorporation, organization, and classification of the cities and towns, in proportion to the population, which laws may be altered, amended, or repealed by the general laws. Cities and towns heretofore incorporated, may become organized under such general laws, whenever a majority of the electors at a general election, shall so determine, under such provision therefor as may be made by the Legislature.

Sec. 2. Any county or incorporated city or town may make and enforce, within its limits, all such local, police, sanitary, and other regulations as are not in conflict with its charter or with the general laws.

Sec. 3. The State shall never assume the debts of any county, town, or other municipal corporation, unless such debts shall have been created to repel invasion, suppress insurrection or defend the State in war.

Sec. 4. No county, town, city, or other municipal corporation, by vote of its citizens or otherwise, shall ever become a stockholder in any joint stock company, corporation or association whatever, or raise money for, or make donation or loan its credit to, or in aid of, any such company or association: Provided, That cities and towns may contract indebtedness for school, water, sanitary, and illuminating purposes: Provided, That any city or town contracting such indebtedness shall own its just proportion of the property thus created, and receive from any income arising therefrom, its proportion to the whole amount so invested.


Immigration and Labor. Section 1. There shall be established a bureau of immigration, labor and statistics, which shall be under the charge of a commissioner of immigration, labor and statistics, who shall be appointed by the Governor, by and with the consent of the senate. The commissioner shall hold his office for two years, and until his successor shall have been appointed and qualified, unless sooner removed. The commissioner shall col. lect information upon the subject of labor, its relation to capital, the hours of labor and the earnings of laboring men and women, and the means of promoting their material, social, intellectual and moral prosperity. The commissioner shall annually make a report in writing to the Governor of the State of the information collected and collated by him, and containing such recommendations as he may deem calculated to promote the efficiency of the bureau.

Sec. 2. Not more than eight (8) hours' actual work shall constitute a lawful day's work on all State and municipal works.

Sec. 3. All labor of cor victs confined in the State's prison shall be done within the prison grounds, except where the work is done on public works under the direct control of the State.

Sec 4. The employment of children under the age of fourteen (14) years in underground mines is prohibited.

Sec. 5. No person, not a citizen of the United States, or who has not declared his intention to become such, shall be employed upon, or in connection with, any State or municipal works.

Sec. 6. The Legislature shall provide by proper legislation for giving to mechanics, laborers, and material men an ade. quate lien on the subject-matter of their labor.

Sec. 7. The Legislature may establish boards of arbitration, whose duty it shall be to hear and determine all differences and controversies between laborers and their employers which may be submitted to them in writing by all the parties. Such boards of arbitration shall possess all the powers and authority in respect to administering oaths, subpoenaing witnesses, and compelling their attendance, preserving order during the sittings of the board, punishing for contempt, and requiring the production of papers and writings, and all other powers and privileges, in their nature applicable, conferred by law on justices of the peace.

Sec. 8. The commissioner of immigration, labor and statistics shall perform such duties and receive such compensation as may be prescribed by law.


Militia. Section 1. All able-bodied male persons, residents of this State, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, shall be enrolled in the militia, and perform such military duty as may be required by law; but no person having conscientious scruples against bearing arms, shall be compelled to perform such duty in time of peace. Every person claiming such exemption from service, shall in lieu thereof, pay into the school fund of the county of which he may be a resident, an equivalent in money, the amount and manner of payment to be fixed by law.

Sec. 2. The Legislature shall provide by law for the enrollment, equipment and discipline of the militia, to conform as nearly as practicable to the regulations for the government of the arinies of the United States, and pass such laws to promote volunteer organizations as may afford them effectual encouragement.

Sec. 3. All militia officers shall be commissioned by the Governor, the manner of their selection to be provided by law, and may hold their commissions for such period of time as the Legislature may provide.

Sec. 4. All military records, banners, and relics of the State, except when in lawful use, shall be preserved in the office of the adjutant-general as an enduring memorial of the patriotism and valor of the soldiers of Idaho; and it shall be the duty of the Legislature to provide by law for the safe-keeping of the same.

Sec. 5. All military organizations under the laws of this State shall carry no other device, banner, or flag than that of the United States or the State of Idaho.

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Sec. 6. No armed police force, or detective agency, or armed body of men, shall ever be brought into this State for the suppression of domestic violence, except upon the application of the Legislature, or the executive when the Legislature cannot be convened.


Water Rights. Section 1. The use of all waters now appropriated, or that may hereafter be appropriated for sale, rental, or distribution; also of all water originally appropriated for private use, but which after such apropriation has heretofore been, or may hereafter be sold, rented, or distributed, is hereby declared to be a public use, and subject to the regulations and control of the State in the manner prescribed by law.

Sec. 2. The right to collect rates or compensation for the use of water supplied to any county, city, or town, or water district, or the inhabitants thereof, is a franchise, and can not be exercised except by authority of and in the manner prescribed by law.

Sec. 3. The right to divert and appropriate the unappropriated waters of any natural stream to beneficial uses, shall never be denied. Priority of appropriation shall give the better right as between those using the water; but when the waters of any natural stream are not sufficient for the service of all those desiring the use of the same, those using the water for domestic purposes shall (subject to such limitations as may be prescribed by law) have the preference over those claiming for any other purpose; and those using the water for agricultural purposes shall have preference over those using the same for manufacturing purposes. And in any organized mining district, those using the water, for mining purposes, or milling purposes connected with mining, shall have preference over those using the same for manufacturing or agricultural purposes. But the usuage of such subsequent appropriators shall be subject to such provisions of law regulating the taking of private property for public and private use, as referred to in section fourteen of article I, of this Constitution..

Sec. 4. Whenever any waters have been, or shall be, appropriated or used for agricultural purposes, under a sale, rental, or distribution thereof, such sale, rental, or distribution shall be deemed an exclusive dedication to such use; and whenever such waters so dedicated sball have once been sold, rented, or distributed to any person who has settled upon or improved land for agricultural purposes with the view of receiving the benefit of such water under such dedication, such person, his heirs, executors, administrators, successors, or assigns, shall not thereafter, without his consent, be deprived of the annual use of the same, when needed for domestic purposes, or to irri. gate the land so settled upon or improved, upon payment there. for, and compliance with such equitable terms and conditions as to the quantity used and times of use, as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 5. Whenever more than one person has settled upon, or improved land with the view of receiving water for agricultural purposes, under a sale, rental or distribution thereof, as in the last preceding section of this article, provided, as among such persons priority in time shall give superiority of right to the use of such water in the numerical order of such settle. ments or improvements; but whenever the supply of such water shall not be sufficient to meet the demands of all those desiring to use the same, such priority of right shall be subject to such reasonable limitations as to the quantity of water used and times of use as the Legislature, having due regard, both to such priority of right and the necessities of those subsequent in time of settlement or improvement, may by law prescribe.

Sec. 6. The Legislature shall provide by law the manner in which reasonable maximum rates may be established to be charged for the use of water sold, rented or distributed for any useful or beneficial purpose.


Live Stock. Section 1. The Legislature shall pass all necessary laws to provide for the protection of live stock against the introduction or spread of pleuro-pneumonia, glanders, splenetic or Texas fever, and other infectious or contagious diseases. The Legislature may also establish a system of quarantine or inspection, and such other regulations as may be necesarry for the protection of stock-owners and most conducive to the stock interests within this State.

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