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tates of those who destroy their own lives shall descend or vest as in case of natural death, and if any person be killed by accident, no forfeiture shall be thereby incurred.
Sec. 16. Although disobedience to laws by a part of the people upon suggestions of impolicy or injustice in them, tends by immediate effect and the influence of example, not only to endanger the public welfare and safety, but also in governments of a republican form, contravenes the social principles of such governments founded on common consent for common good; yet the citizens have a right in an orderly manner to meet together, and to apply to persons instrusted with the powers of government, for redress of grievances or other proper purposes, by petition, remonstrance or address.
Sec. 17. No standing army shall be kept up without the consent of the Legislature; and the military shall, in all cases and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.
Sec. 18. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but by a civil magistrate, in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Sec. 19. No hereditary distinction shall be granted, nor any office created or exercised, the appointment to which shall be for a longer term than during good behavior; and no person holding any office under this State, shall accept of any office or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
WE DECLARE THAT EVERYTHING IN THIS ARTICLE IS RESERVED OUT OF THE GENERAL POWERS OF GOVERNMENT HEREINAFTER MENTIONED.
Section 1. The legislative power of this state shall be vested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
Sec. 2. The Representatives shall be chosen for two years, by the citizens residing in the several counties.
No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-four years, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State three years next preceding the first meeting of the Legislature after his election, and the last year of that term an inhabitant of the county in which he shall be chosen, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States or this State.
There shall be seven Representatives chosen in each county, until a greater number of Representatives shall by the General Assembly be judged necessary; and then, two-thirds of each branch of the Legislature concurring, they may by law make provision for increasing their number.
Sec. 3. The Senators shall be chosen for four years by the citizens residing in the several counties.
No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-seven years, and have in the county in which he shall be chosen, a freehold estate in two hundred acres of land, or an estate in real and personal property, or in either, of the value of one thousand pounds at least, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State three years next preceding the first meeting of the Legislature after his election, and the last year of that term an inhabitant of the county in which he shall be chosen, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States or of this State.
There shall be three Senators chosen in each county. When a greater number of Senators shall by the General Assembly be judged necessary, two-thirds of each branch concurring, they may by law make provision for increasing their number; but the number of Senators shall never be greater than one-half, nor less than one-third of the number of Representatives.
If the office of Representative, or the office of Senator, be come vacant before the regular expiration of the term thereof, a Representative or a Senator shall be elected to fill such vacanoy, and shall hold the office for the residue of said term.
When there is a vacancy in either house of the General Assem. bly, and the General Assembly is not in session, the Governor shall have power to issue a writ of election to fill such vacancy; which writ shall be executed as a writ issued by the speaker of either house in case of vacancy.
Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall meet on the first Tuesday of January, biennially, unless sooner convened by the Governor.
The first meeting of the General Assembly under this amended Constitution, shall be on the first Tuesday of January, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, which shall be the commencement of biennial sessions.
Sec. 5. Each house shall choose its speaker and other officers; and also each house, whose speaker shall exercise the office of Governor may choose a speaker pro tempore.
Sec. 6. Each house shall judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and shall be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as shall be deemed expedient.
Sec. 7. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish any of its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member, and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the Legislature of a free and independent State.
Sec. 8. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish them immediately after every session, except such parts as may require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members on any question shall, at the desire of any member, be entered on the journal.
Sec. 9. The doors of each house, and of the committees of the whole, shall be open, unless when the business is such as ought to be kept secret.
Sec. 10. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.
Sec. 11. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the State; but no law varying the compensation shall take effect, till an election of Representatives shall have intervened. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be priviledged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in any other place.
Sec. 12. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office under this State, which shall have been created, or the ememoluments of which shall have been increased during such time. No person concerned in any army or navy contract, no member of Congress, nor any person holding any office under this State or the United States, except the Attorney-General, officers usually appointed by the courts of justice respectively, attorneys at law and officers in the militia, holding no disqualifying office, shall during his continuance in Congress or in office be a Senator or Representative.
Sec. 13. When vacancies happen in either house, writs of election shall be issued by the speakers respectively, or in cases of necessity, in such other manner as shall be provided by law; and the persons thereupon chosen shall hold their seats as long as those in whose stead they are elected might have done, if such vacancies had not happened.
Sec. 14. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but, the Senate may propose alterations as on other bills; and no bill, from the operation of which when passed into a law revenue may incidentally arise, shall be accounted a bill for raising revenue; nor shall any matter or clause whatever, not immediately relating to and necessary for raising revenue, be in any manner blended with or annexed to a bill for raising revenue.
Sec. 15. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published at least once in every two years.
Sec. 16. The State Treasurer shall be appointed biennially by the House of Representatives, with the concurrence of the Senate. In case of a vacancy in the office of State Treasurer in the recess of the General Assembly, either through omission of the General Assembly to appoint, or by the death, removal out of the State, resignation, or inability of the State Treasurer, or his failure to give security, the Governor shall fill the vacancy by appointment to continue until the next meeting of the General Assembly. The State Treasurer shall settle his accounts annually with the General Assembly, or a committee thereof, which shall be appointed at every biennial session. No person who hath served in the office of State Treasurer shall be eligible to a seat in either house of the General Assembly until he shall have made a final settlement of his accounts as treasurer and discharged the balance, if any, due thereon.
Sec. 17. No act of incorporation, except for the renewal of existing corporations, shall be hereafter enacted without the concurrence by two-thirds of each branch of the Legislature; and with a reserved power of revocation by the Legislature; and no act of incorporation which may be hereafter enacted, shall continue in force for a longer period than twenty years, without the re-enactment of the Legislature, unless it be an incorporation for public improvement. (The Legislature shall have power to enact a general incorporation act to provide incorporation for religious, charitable, literary and manufacturing purposes, for the preservation of animal and vegetable food, building and loan associations, and for draining low lands; and no attempt shall be made, in such act or otherwise, to limit or qualify the power of revocation reserved to the Legislature in this section.)
ARTICLE III. Section 1. The supreme executive powers of the State shall be vested in the Governor.
Sec. 2. The Governor shall be chosen by the citizens of the State. The returns of every election for Governor shall be sealed up and immediately delivered by the returning officers of the several counties to the Speaker of the Senate, or in case of the vacancy of the office of the Speaker of the Senate, or his absence from the State, to the Secretary of State, who shall keep the same until a Speaker of the Senate shall be appointed to whom they shall be immediately delivered after his appointment, who shall open and publish the same in the presence of the members of both Houses of the Legislature. Duplicates of the said returns shall also be immediately lodged with the prothonotary of each county. The person having the highest number of votes shall be Governor; but if two or more shall be equal in the highest number of votes, the members of the two houses shall, by joint ballot, choose one of them to be Governor; and if, upon such ballot, two or more of them shall still be equal and highest in votes, the speaker of the Senate shall have an additional casting vote.
Contested elections of a Governor shall be determined by a joint committee, consisting of one-third of all the members of each branch of the Legislature, to be selected by ballot of the houses respectively; every person of the committee shall take an oath of affirmation, that in determining the said election, he will faithfully discharge the trust imposed in him; and the committee shall always sit with open doors.