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to 'exclusive public emoluments or privileges from the comwunity.

Sec. 2. That all political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit; and that they have at all times an undeniable and indefeasible right to alter their form of government in such a manner as they may think expedient.

Sec. 3. The exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination, shall forever be free to all persons in this State, provided that the right hereby declared and established shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or to justify practices inconsistent with the peace and safety of the State.

Sec. 4. No preference shall be given by law to any Christian sect or mode of worship.

Sec. 5. Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

Sec. 6. No law shall ever be passed to curtail or restrain the liberty of speech and of the press.

Sec. 7. In all prosecutions or indictments for libels the truth may be given in evidence, and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court.

Sec. 8. The people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions from unreasonable searches or seizures, and no warrant to search any place, or to seize any person or things, shall issue without describing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause supported by oath or affirmation.

Sec. 9. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have a right to be heard by himself and by counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted by the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process to obtain witnesses in his favor; and in all prosecutions, by indictment or information, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury. He shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, but by due course of law. And no person shall be holden to answer for any crime, the punishment of which may be death or imprisonment for life, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury; except in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger.

Sec. 10. No person shall be arrested, detained, or punished, except in cases clearly warranted by law.

Sec. 11. The property of no person shall be taken for public use without just compensation therefor.

Sec. 12. All courts shall be open, and every person, for an injury done to him in his person, property, or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial, or delay.

Sec. 13. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed.

Sec. 14. All prisoners shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses, where the proof is evident, or the presumption great; and the privileges of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it; nor in any case, but by the legislature.

Sec. 15. No person shall be attainted of treason or felony by the legislature.

Sec. 16. The citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble for their common good, and to apply to those invested witi the powers of government, for redress of grievances, or other proper purposes, by petition, address, or remonstrance.

Sec. 17. Every citizen has a right to bear arms in defense of himself and the State.

Sec. 18. The military shall, in all cases and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.

Sec. 19. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Sec. 20. No hereditary emoluments, privileges, or honors shall ever be granted or conferred in this State.

Sec. 21. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.


Of the Distribution of Powers. The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct departments, and each of them confided to a separate mag. istracy, to wit: Those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judicial, to another.


Of the Legislative Department. Section 1. The legislative power of this State shall be vested in two distinct houses or branches; the one to be styled The Senate, the other The House of Representatives, and both together The General Assembly. The style of their laws shall be, Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Assembly convened.

Sec. 2. There shall be one stated session of the General Assembly, to be holden in each year, alternately at Hartford and New Haven, on the first Wednesday of May (altered by amendments of 1872, 1875, 1876 and 1884) and and at such other times as the General Assembly shall judge necessary; the first session to be holden at Hartford; but the person administering the office of Governor may, on special emergencies, convene the General Assembly at either of said places, at any other time. And in case of danger from the prevalence of contagious diseases in either of said places, or other circumstances, the person administering the office of Governor may by proclamation con. vene said Assembly at any other place in this State.

Sec. 3. The House of Representatives shall consist of electors residing in towns from which they are elected. The number of Representatives from each town shall be the same as at present practiced and allowed. In case a new town shall hereafter be incorporated, such new town shall be entitled to one representative only (altered by amendments of 1828, 1836 and 1875); and if such new town shall be made from

more towns, the town or towns from which the same shall be inade shall be entitled to the same number of Representatives as at present allowed, unless the number shall be reduced by the consent of such town or towns.

Sec. 4. The Senate shall consist of twelve members, to be chosen annually by the elector's (altered by amendments of 1828, 1836 and 1875).

Sec. 5. At the meetings of the electors, held in the several towns in this State in April annually, after the election of Representatives, the electors present shall be called upon to bring in their written ballots for Senators (altered by amendments of 1836, 1875 and 1884). The presiding officer shall receive the votes of the electors, and count and declare them in open meeting. The presiding officer shall also make duplicate lists of the persons voted for, and of the number of



votes for each, which shall be certified by the presiding officer; one of which lists shall be delivered to the Town Clerk, and the other, within ten days after said meeting, shall be delivered, under seal, either to the Secretary or to the sheriff of the county in which said town is situated: which list shall be directed to the Secretary, with a superscription expressing the purport of the contents thereof; and each sheriff who shall receive such rotes shall, within fifteen days after said meeting, deliver, or cause them to be delivered, to the Secretary.

Sec. 6. The Treasurer, Secretary, and Comptroller, for the time being, shall canvass the votes publicly. The twelve persons having the greatest number of votes for Senators shall be declared to be elected (altered by amendments of 1828 and 1875). But in cases where no choice is made by the electors in consequence of an equality of votes, the House of Representatives shall designate. by ballot, which of the candidates having such equal number of votes shall be declared to be elected. The return of votes, and the result of the canvass, shall be submitted to the House of Representatives, and also to the Senate, on the first day of the session of the General Assembly; and each House shall be the final judge of the election, returns, and qualifications of its own members.

Sec. 7. The House of Representatives, when assembled, shall choose a speaker, clerk, and other officers. The Senate shall choose its clerk and other officers except the President. A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number mav adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members in such manner, and under such penalties, as each House may prescribe.

Sec. 8. Each House shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, punish members for disorderly conduct, and, with the consent of two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same cause; and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the Legislature of a free and independent State.

Sec. 9. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and pubiish the same when required by one-fifth of its members, except such parts as, in the judgment of a majority, require secrecy. The yeas and nays of the members of either House shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journals.

Sec. 10. The Senators and Representatives shall, in all cases of civil process, be privileged from arrest during the session of the General Assembly, and for four days before the commencement and after the termination of any session thereof. And for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be ques. tioned in any other place.

Sec. 11. The debates of each house shall be public, except on such occasions as, in the opinion of the house, may require secrecy. .


Of the Ececutive Department. Section 1. The supreme executive power of the State shall be vested in a Governor, who shall be chosen by the electors of the State, and shall hold his office for one year from the first Wednesday of May (made to apply to biennial elections by amendment of 1875) next succeeding his election, and until his successor be duly qualified. No person who is not an elector of this State, and who has not arrived at the age of thirty years, shall be eligible.

Sec. 2. At the meetings of the electors in the respective towns, in the month of April in each year (made to apply to biennial elections by amendment of 1876), immediately after the election of Senators, the presiding officers shall call upon the electors to bring in their ballots for him whom they would elect to be Governor, with his name fairly written. When such ballots shall have been received and counted in the presence of the electors, duplicate lists of the persons voted for, and of the number of votes given for each, shall be made and certified by the presiding officer, one of which lists shall be deposited in the office of the Town Clerk within three days, and the other within ten days, after said election, shall be transmitted to the Secretary, or to the sheriff of the county in which such election shall have been held. The sheriff receiving said votes shall deliver, or cause them to be delivered, to the Secretary within fifteen days next after said election. The votes so returned shall be counted by the Treasurer, Secretary and Comptroller, within the month of April. A fair list of the persons and number of votes given for each, together with the returns of the presiding officers, shall be, by the Treasurer, Secretary and Comptroller, made and laid before the General Assembly, then next to be holden, on the first day of the session thereof; and said Assembly shall, after examination of the same, declare the person whom they shall

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