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Boundary. Section 1. The boundary of the State.
nizances and all other instru-
adoption of this Constitution.
stitution. 5. Printing of ballots.
in regard to elections.
against the adoption of this
Constitution. 8. Receiving returns. 9. Returns of votes for Consti
tion.--Proclamation by Gover
nor. 10. Terms of officers at first elec
tion under this Constitution. 11. Laws applicable to judicial sys
tem created by this Constitu
tion, 12. When this Constitution shall
PREAMBLE AND DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.
Preamble. We, the people of the State of California, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, in order to secure and perpetuate its blessirgs do establish this Constitution.
Declaration of Rights. Section 1. All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty; acquiring, possessing and protecting property; and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness.
Sec. 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for the protection, security and benefit of the people, and they have the right to alter or reform the same whenever the public good may require it.
Sec. 3. The State of California is an inseparable part of the American Union, and the Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the land.
Sec. 4. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be guaranteed in this State; and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness or juror on account of his opinions on matters of religious belief; but the liberty of con
Amending and Revising the Constitu
Revenue and Taxation, Section 1. Taxes. Definition of the word
property. 2. Assessment, how made. 3. Assessment of more than 640
acres of land. Assessment of
small tracts. 4. Mortgage, and of trust, or con
tract. 5. When a contract is null and
void. 6. Power of taxation not to be
surrendered. 7. Power of Legislature to provide
by law for payment of taxes. 8. Statement of property owned. 9. Board of equalization. 10. Manner of assessing property. 11. Income taxes. 12. Levy and collection of poll tax, 13. Legislature to pass laws to
carry out provisions of this article.
Water and Water Rights.
1. Water rights under control of
State. 2. Collection of rates.
Harbor Frontage, Etc. 1. Right of eminent domain. 2. Navigation of waters and right
of way. 3. Tide lands.
1. Extent of liability.
Land and Homestead Exemption.
tion. Section 1. Constitution may be amended. 2. Revision of Constitution.
1. Aliens, paupers, criminals and
1. Seat of government
cers not provided for by Con
stitution. 5. Fiscal year. 6. Suits against the State. 7. Contract of marriage. 8. Property of husband and wife. 9. No perpetuities allowed except
for eleemosynary purposes. 10. Offering tribe disqualifies for
holding office. 11. Person convicted of bribery,
perjury, forgery, etc. 12. Absence from State in regard
to residence. 13. Plurality of votes. 14. State board of health. 15. Mechanics, laborers, etc., have
lien on property for value of
labor done. 16. Term of any officer or com
missioner when not provided
for by Constitution.
ses of the convention framing
this Constitution. 20. When election of officers shall
1. Rights of the homestead.
libeled resided at the time of the alleged publication, unless the place of trial shall be changed for good cause.
Sec. 10. The people shall have the right to freely assemble together to consult for the common good, to instruct their repre. sentatives, and to petition the Legislature for redress of griev
Sec. 11. All laws of a general nature shall have a uniform operation.
Sec. 12. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power. No standing army shall be kept up by this State in time of peace, and no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, except in the manner prescribed by law.
Sec. 13. In criminal prosecutions, in any court whatever, the party accused shall have the right to a speedy and public trial; to have the process of the court to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and to appear and defend, in person and with counsel. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense; nor be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law. The Legislature shall have power to provide for the taking, in the presence of the party accused and his counsel, of depositions of witnesses, in criminal cases other than cases of homicide, when there is reason to believe that the witness, from inability or other cause, will not attend at the trial.
Sec. 14. Private property shall not be taken or damaged for public use without just compensation having been first made to, or paid into court for, the owner, and no right of way shall be appropriated to the use of any corporation other than municipal until full compensation therefor be first made in money or ascertained and paid into court for the owner, irrespective of any benefit from any improvement proposed by such corporation, which compensation shall be ascertained by a jury, unless a jury be waived, as in other civil cases in a court of record, as shall be prescribed by law.
Sec. 15. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any civil action, on mesne or final process, unless in cases of fraud, nor in civil actions for torts, except in cases of willful injury to per. science hereby secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this State.
Sec. 5. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require its suspension.
Sec. 6. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offenses when the proof is evident or the presumption great. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed; nor shall cruel or unusual punishment be inflicted. Witnesses shall not be unreasonably detained, nor confined in any room where criminals are actually imprisoned.
Sec. 7. The right of trial by jury shall be secured to all, and remain inviolate; but in civil actions three-fourths of the jury may render a verdict. A trial by jury may be waived in all criminal cases not amounting to felony, by the consent of both parties, expressed in open court, and in civil actions by the consent of the parties, signified in such manner as may be prescribed by law. In civil actions and cases of misdemeanor, the jury may consist of twelve, or of any number less than twelve upon which the parties may agree in open court.
Sec. 8. Offenses heretofore required to be prosecuted by indictment shall be prosecuted by information, after examination and commitment, by a magistrate, or by indictment, with or without such examination and commitment, as may be prescribed by law. A grand jury shall be drawn and summoned at least once a year in each county.
Sec. 9. Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact. Indictments found, or information laid, for publications in newspapers, shall be tried in the county where such newspapers have their publication office, or in the county where the party alleged to be
Right of Suffrage. Section 1. Every native male citizen of the United States, every male person who shall have acquired the rights of citizenship under or by virtue of the treaty of Queretaro, and every male naturalized citizen thereof, who shall have become such ninety days prior to any election, of the age of twenty-one years, who shall have been a resident of the State one year next preceding the election, and of the county in which he claims his vote ninety days, and in the election precinct thirty days, shall be entitled to vote at all elections which are now or may hereafter be authorized by law: Provided, no native of China, no idiot, insane person, or person convicted of any infamous crime, and no person hereafter convicted of the embezzlement or misappropriation of public money, shall ever exercise the privileges of an elector in this State.
Sec. 2. Electors shall in all cases, except treason, felony or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest on the days of election, during their attendance at such election, going to and returning therefrom.
Sec. 3. No elector shall be obliged to perform militia duty on the day of election, except in time of war or public danger.
Sec. 4. For the purpose of voting, no person shall be deemed to have gained or lost a residence by reason of his presence or absence while employed in the service of the United States; nor while engaged in the navigation of the waters of this State, or of the United States, or of the high seas; nor while a student at any seminary of learning; nor while kept in any almshouse or other asylum, at public expense; nor while confined in any public prison.
Sec. 5. All elections by the people shall be by ballot.
Distribution of Powers. Section 1. The powers of the government of the State of California shall be divided into three separate departments the legislative, executive and judicial; and no person charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one of these