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ARTICLE XII.

Section 3. Prison officers. 4. Compensation of the board. 5. Regulation of the duties of the

board, wardens and clerks. 6. Convict labor.

ARTICLE XI.

Counties, Cities and Touons.

1. Counties. 2. Removal of county seat. 3. Formation of new counties and

enlargement of others. 4. County government. 5. County officers. 6. Organization of cities and

towns. 7. Consolidation of city and county

governments. 8. City charters. 9. County, city town and municipal officers-their pay

and term of office. 10. Taxes for State purposes—No

release from. 11. Local and police regulations. 12. Legislature has no power to im

pose taxes upon counties,

cities and towns. 13. It may not delegate any special

commission or private corporation to have control of county or town money, prop

erty or effects. 14. Inspectors, measurers, etc. 15. Private property may not be

sold for payment of the corporate debt of any political or

municipal corporation. 16. County, city or town money.

Disposition of same. 17. Use of public money for private

purposes. 18. Indebtedness may not be in

curred that is greater than the income for the year without the assent of two-thirds of the

qualified electors. 19. In case public works are not

owned or controlled by municipality.

Corporations. Section 1. How corporations are formed. 2. Dues from corporations. 3. Liability of stockholders. 4. Corporations—what is included

in the term. 5. No charters for banking pur

poses.-Lawful money. 6. Charters and grants existing

before this Constitution is not in bona fide organization have

no validity. 7. Extension of franchise of char

ter. 8. Right of eminent domain. 9. Not to engage in other business. 10. Leasing or alienation of fran

chise. 11. Increase of stock or bonds. 12. Vote of stockholders and elec

tion of directors. 13. Loan of State credit. 14. Books of corporations open for

inspection. 15. Corporations organized out of

this State. 16. Place where corporation may be

sued. 17. Common carriers. Rights of

railroads to cross each other. 18. Restrictions in regard to officers

and employes' interest in any railroad or canal of those who

are not stockholders. 19. Free passes and penalty for ac

cepting the same. 20. Contracts of common carriers

with vessels, etc. In regard to lowering rates for passen

gers and freight. 21. No discrimination in charges. 22. Division of the State into dis

tricts for election of railroad commissioners. Salary and term of office of same. Duties

of commissioners. 23. Enumeration of railroad dis

tricts. 24. Legislature to pass laws for en

forcement of provisions of this article.

ARTICLE XVIII.

Amending and Revising the Constitu

tion. Section 1. Constitution may be amended. 2. Revision of Constitution.

ARTICLE XIX.

Chinese.

1. Aliens, paupers, criminals and

contagious diseases. 2. Employment of Chinese. 3. Employment of Chinese

by State. 4.Coolie labor.

ARTICLE XX. Miscellaneous.

1. Seat of government 2. Dueling 3. Oath of office. 4. Election or appointment of off

cers not provided for by Con

stitution. 5. Fiscal year. 6. Suits against the State. 7. Contract of marriage. 8. Property of husband and wife. 9. No perpetuities allowed except

for eleemosynary purposes. 10. Offering bribe disqualifies for

holding office. 11. Person convicted of bribery,

perjury, forgery, etc. 12. Absence from State in regard

to residence. 13. Plurality of votes. 14. State board of health. 15. Mechanics, laborers, etc., have

lien on property for value of

labor done. 16. Term of any officer or

com

ARTICLE XIII.

Revenue and Taxation. Section 1. Taxes. Definition of the word

property. 2. Assessment, how made. 3. Assessment of more than 640

acres of land. Assessment of

small tracts. 4. Mortgage, and of trust, or con

tract. 5. When a contract is null and

void. 6. Power of taxation not to be

surrendered. 7. Power of Legislature to provide

by law for payment of taxes. 8. Statement of property owned. 9. Board of equalization. 10. Manner of assessing property. 11. Income taxes. 12. Levy and collection of poll tax, 13. Legislature to pass

laws to carry out provisions of this article.

ARTICLE XIV.

Water and Water Rights.

1. Water rights under control of

State.
2. Collection of rates.

ARTICLE XV.
Harbor Frontage, Etc.

1. Right of eminent domain.
2. Navigation of waters and right

of way. 3. Tide lands.

missioner when not provided

for by Constitution. 17. Eight hours a day's work. 18. Rights of both sexes to carry

on business. 19. In regard to payment of expen

ses of the convention framing

this Constitution, 20. When election of officers shall

be held.

ARTICLE XVI.

State Indebtedness.

1. Extent of liability.

ARTICLE XVII.

Land and Homestead Exemption.

1. Rights of the homestead.
2. In regard to holding large tracts

of land.
3. Granting of State lands.

ARTICLE XXI.

Boundary. Section 1. The boundary of the State.

ARTICLE XXII.

Schedule.

1. Provisions as to existing laws.
2. In regard to obligations, recog-

nizances and all other instru-
ments entered into before the

adoption of this Constitution.
3. Abolishment of courts.
4. In regard to printing the Con-

stitution. 5. Printing of ballots.

Section
6. Duties of clerks of the counties

in regard to elections.
7. Those who may vote for or

against the adoption of this

Constitution. 8. Receiving returns. 9. Returns of votes for Consti

tion.-Proclamation by Gover

nor. 10. Terms of officers at first elec

tion under this Constitution. 11. Laws applicable to judicial sys

tem created by this Constitu

tion. 12. When this Constitution shall

take effect.

PREAMBLE AND DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.

Preamble. We, the people of the State of California, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, in order to secure and perpetuate its blessirgs do establish this Constitution.

ARTICLE I.

Declaration of Rights. Section 1. All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoy. ing and defending life and liberty; acquiring, possessing and protecting property; and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness.

Sec. 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for the protection, security and benefit of the people, and they have the right to alter or reform the same whenever the public good may require it.

Sec. 3. The State of California is an inseparable part of the American Union, and the Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the land.

Sec. 4. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be guaranteed in this State; and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness or juror on account of his opinions on matters of religious belief; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this State.

Sec. 5. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require its suspension.

Sec. 6. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offenses when the proof is evident or the presumption great. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed; nor shall cruel or unusual punishment be inflicted. Witnesses shall not be unreasonably detained, nor confined in any room where criminals are actually imprisoned.

Sec. 7. The right of trial by jury shall be secured to all, and remain inviolate; but in civil actions three-fourths of the jury may render a verdict. A trial by jury may be waived in all criminal cases not amounting to felony, by the consent of both parties, expressed in open court, and in civil actions by the con. sent of the parties, signified in such manner as may be prescribed by law.

In civil actions and cases of misdemeanor, the jury may consist of twelve, or of any number less than twelve upon which the parties may agree in open court.

Sec. 8. Offenses heretofore required to be prosecuted by indictment shall be prosecuted by information, after examination and commitment, by a magistrate, or by indictment, with or without such examination and commitment, as may be prescribed by law. A grand jury shall be drawn and summoned at least once a year in each county.

Sec. 9. Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact. Indictments found, or information laid, for publications in newspapers, shall be tried in the county where such newspapers have their publication office, or in the county where the party alleged to be

libeled resided at the time of the alleged publication, unless the place of trial shall be changed for good cause.

Sec. 10. The people shall have the right to freely assemble together to consult for the common good, to instruct their representatives, and to petition the Legislature for redress of grievances.

Sec. 11. All laws of a general nature shall have a uniform operation.

Sec. 12. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power. No standing army shall be kept up by this State in time of peace, and no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, except in the manner prescribed by law.

Sec. 13. In criminal prosecutions, in any court whatever, the party accused shall have the right to a speedy and public trial; to have the process of the court to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and to appear and defend, in person and with counsel. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense; nor be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law. The Legislature shall have power to provide for the taking, in the presence of the party accused and his counsel, of depositions of witnesses, in criminal cases other than cases of homicide, when there is reason to believe that the witness, from inability or other cause, will not attend at the trial.

Sec. 14. Private property shall not be taken or damaged for public use without just compensation having been first made to, or paid into court for, the owner, and no right of way shall be appropriated to the use of any corporation other than municipal until full compensation therefor be first made in money or ascertained and paid into court for the owner, irrespective of any benefit from any improvement proposed by such corporation, which compensation shall be ascertained by a jury, unless a jury be waived, as in other civil cases in a court of record, as shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 15. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any civil action, on mesne or final process, unless in cases of fraud, nor in civil actions for torts, except in cases of willful injury to per

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