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19. No county, city, borough, town, township or village shall hereafter give any money or property, or loan its money or credit, to or in aid of any individual association or corporation, or become security for or be directly or indirectly the owner of any stock or bonds of any association or corporation.

20. No donation of land or appropriation of money shall be made by the State or any municipal corporation to or for the use of any society, association or corporation whatever.

21. This enumeration of rights and privileges shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people.


Right of Suffrage. 1. Every male citizen of the United States, of the age of twenty-one years, who shall have been a resident of this State one year, and of the county in which he claims his vote five months, next before the election, shall be entitled to vote for all officers that now are, or hereafter may be, elective by the people: Provided, That no person in the military, naval or marine service of the United States shall be considered a resident in this State, by being stationed in any garrison, barrack, or military or naval place or station within this State; and no pauper, idiot, insane person, or person convicted of a crime which now excludes him from being a witness unless pardoned or restored by law to the right of suffrage, shall enjoy the right of an elector: And provided further, that in time of war no elector in the actual military service of the State, or of the United States, in the army or navy thereof, shall be deprived of his vote by reason of his absence from such election district; and the Legislature shall have power to provide the manner in which, and the time and place at which, such absent electors may vote, and for the return and canvass of their votes in the election districts in which they respectively reside.

2. The Legislature may pass laws to deprive persons of the right of suffrage who shall be convicted of bribery.

ARTICLE III. Distribution of the Powers of Government. 1. The powers of the government shall be divided into three distinct departments—the legislative, executive and judicial; and no person or persons belonging to, or constituting one of these departments, shall exercise any of the powers properly belonging to either of the others, except as herein expressly provided.


Section I. 1. The legislative power shall be vested in the Senate and General Assembly.

2. No person shall be a member of the Senate who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State for four years, and of the county for which he shall be chosen one year, next before his election; and no person shall be a member of the General Assembly who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State for two years, and of the county for which he shall be chosen one year next before his election: Provided, That no person shall be eligible as a member of either house of the Legislature, who shall not be entitled to the right of suffrage.

3. Members of the Senate and General Assembly shall be elected yearly and every year, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November; and the two houses shall meet separately on the second Tuesday in January next after the said day of election, at which time of meeting the legislative year shall commence; but the time of holding such election may be altered by the Legislature.

Section II. 1. The Senate shall be composed of one Senator from each county in the State, elected by the legal voters of the counties, respectively, for three years.

2. As soon as the Senate shall meet after the first election to be held in pursuance of this Constitution, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the first year; of the second class at the expiration of the second year; and of the third class at the expiration of the third year, so that one class may be elected every year; and if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, the persons elected to to supply such vacancies shall be elected for the unexpired term only.

Section III.

1. The General Assembly shall be composed of members annually elected by the legal voters of the counties, respectively, who shall be apportioned among the said counties as nearly as may be according to the number of their inhabitants. The present apportionment shall continue until the next census of the United States shall have been taken, and an apportionment of the members of the General Assembly shall be made by the Legislature at its first session after the next and every subsequent enumeration or census, and when made shall remain unaltered until another enumeration shall have been taken: Provided, That each county shall at all times be entitled to one member; and the whole number of members shall never exceed sixty.

Section IV.

1. Each house shall direct writs of election for supplying vacancies, occasioned by death, resignation, or otherwise; but if vacancies occur during the recess of the Legislature, the writs may be issued by the Governor, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law.

2. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.

3. Each house shall choose its own officers, determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, may expel a member.

4. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

5. Neither house, during the session of the Legislature, shall, with the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting

6. All bills and joint resolutions shall be read three times in each house, before the final passage thereof; and no bill or joint resolution shall pass unless there be a majority of all the members of each body personally present and agreeing thereto; and the yeas and nays of the members voting on such final passage shall be entered on the journal.

7. Members of the Senate and General Assembly shall receive annually the sum of five hundred dollars during the time for which they shall have been elected and while they shall hold their office, and no other allowance or emolument, directly or indirectly, for any purpose whatever. The president of the Senate and speaker of the House of Assembly shall, in virtue of their offices, receive an additional compensation, equal to one-third of their allowance as members.

8. Members of the Senate and General Assembly shall, in all cases except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the sitting of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate, in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

Section V.

1. No member of the Senate or General Assembly shall, during the time for which he was elected, be nominated or appointed by the Governor, or by the Legislature in joint meeting, to any civil office under the authority of this State which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time.

2. If any member of the Senate or General Assembly shall be elected to represent this State in the Senate or House of Representatives of the United States, and shall accept thereof, or shall accept of any office or appointment under the govern ment of the United States, his seat in the Legislature of this State shall thereby be vacated.

3. No justice of the Supreme Court, nor judge of any other court, sheriff, justice of the peace nor any person or persons possessed of any office of profit under the government of this State, shall be entitled to a seat either in the Senate or in the General Assembly; but, on being elected and taking his seat, his office shall be considered vacant; and no person holding any office of profit under the government of the United States shall be entitled to a seat in either house.

Section VI. 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Assembly; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.

2. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but for appropriations made by law.

3. The credit of the State shall not be directly or indirectly loaned in any case.

4. The Legislature shall not, in any manner, create any debt or debts, liability or liabilities, of the State which shall, singly or in the aggregate with any previous debts or liabilities, at any time exceed one hundred thousand dollars, except for purposes of war, or to repel invasion, or to suppress insurrection, unless the same shall be authorized by a law for some single object or work, to be distinctly specified therein; which law shall provide the ways and means, exclusive of loans, to pay the interest of such debt or liability as it falls due, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt or liability within thirty-five years from the time of the contracting thereof, and shall be irrepealable until such debt or liability, and the interest thereon, are fully paid and discharged; and no such law shall take effect until it shall, at a general election, have been submitted to the people, and have received the sanotion of a majority of all the votes cast for and against it at such election; and all money to be raised by the authority of such law shall be applied only to the specific object stated therein, and to the pay. ment of the debt thereby created. This section shall not be construed to refer to any money that has been, or may be, deposited with this State by the government of the United States.

Section VII. 1. No divorce shall be granted by the Legislature.

2. No lottery shall be authorized by this State, and no ticket in any lottery not authorized by a law of this State shall be bought or sold within the State.

3. The Legislature shall not pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or depriving a party of any remedy for enforcing a contract which existed when the contract was made.

4. To avoid improper influences which may result from intermixing in one and the same act such things as have no proper relation to each other, every law shall embrace but one object,

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