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Section 2. Enumeration of what property
is to remain exempt from
taxation. 3. All mines and mining claims of
gold, silver or other valuable mineral deposits have to purchase thereof from the United States, shall be taxed at the price paid the United States
therefor. 4. The Legislature shall not levy taxes
upon inhabitants or property in any county, city,
town, etc. 5. Taxes for city, town and school
purposes may be levied, but the assessed valuation of such property taxed shall not exceed the valuation for State
and county purposes. 6. No city, county, town, etc., shall
be released from its propor
tionate share of State taxes. 7. The power of tax corporations
shall never be relinquished. 8. The corporate debts of public
corporations shall be provided
for by law. 9. The rate of taxation on real
and personal property. 10. No money shall be drawn from
the treasury except by appro
priation made by law. 11. Taxes shall be uniform upon the
same class of subjects. 12. No appropriations shall be made
or expenditures authorized whereby the expenditures of the State shall exceed the
total tax. 13. The Treasurer shall keep
separate account of each fund in his hands, and shall make
quarterly report to the
shall have been located it shall
electors of the State.
capital buildings, etc. 5. The counties shall provide for
those in need of aid.
Education. 1. A uniform system of free pub
lic schools. 2. Public school fund of the State
and school lands. 3. Such public school funds shall
forever remain inviolate. 4. State Board of Land Commis
sioners, to consist of whom,
funds, etc., shall be appor-
districts of the State.
by the Legislature by taxa
children and youths between
State for any sectarian pur
shall be required for admis-
to be separate from those of
the State. 11. State Board of Education has
versity and all other State
lic moneys shall be deemed a
felony. 15. The Board of Equalization for
State and county. 16. Property shall be assessed in
the manner prescribed by law,
Rerenue and Taration,
port of the State shall be pro-
for municipal corporations,
etc. 3. The Legislature shall have the
power to alter or revoke or
annul charters. 4. It shall provide by law for the
election of directors, etc., of
incorporated companies. 5. All railroads shall be public
highways, and with transportation and express companies,
common carriers. 6. No such corporations shall con
solidate with competing or
parallel lines. 7. No discrimination in charges for transportation of freight
passengers of the same class should be made. 8. No railroad, express or other
except if otherwise provided
laws necessary to carry out
Public Indebtedness. 1. The State or any of its subdi
visions shall not give or loan
its credit. 2. In regard to the power of the
Legislature to create debt, and
the limit thereof. 3. In regard to borrowed money
and the purpose for which it
shall be used. 4. The State shall not assume the
debts of any of its subdivi
sions. 5. In regard to the powers of a
county to create a debt. 6. The same of cities, towns, town
ship or school districts.
transportation company in existence at the time of the adoption of this Constitution shall have the benefit of fu
ture legislation, etc. 9. The right of eminent domain
shall never be abridged. 10. Fictitious increase of stock or
indebtedness shall be void. 11. No foreign corporation shall do
business in this State without having one or more known
places of business, etc. 12. No street railroad shall be con
structed in any city or town without the consent of the
local authorities. 13. The Legislature shall pass no
law for the benefit of a rail
road or other corporation, etc. 14. In regard to the right to con
struct or maintain telegraph or telephone lines.-They shall not consolidate with any other
similar company. 15. If any State, railroad, telegraph,
telephone or express corpora. tion shall consolidate with any other corporation organized under other States or Territories they shall not become foreign corporations.
Military Affairs. 1. The militia, to consist of whom. 2. They shall be organized, equip
ped and disciplined. 3. The militia shall be maintained
by State appropriations. 4. The Legislature shall provide
by law for military records,
of the State in time of war he
under which business has not
have no validity.
shall be extended, etc., except
Amendments. 1. The following oath to be taken
by officers. 2. Lotteries and gift enterprises
illegal. 3. Laws shall be enacted to pre
vent the destruction by fire of the grasses and forests on
the lands of the State. 4. The Legislature shall enact lib
eral homestead and exemption
laws. 5. No perpetuities shall al
Municipal Corporations and Officers. 1. The counties of the Territory of
Montana, as they exist at the time of its admission as State, shall remain the same
lowed, except for charitable
purposes. 6. County officers to keep their
offices at the county seats. 7. In regard to public lands, pre
ference shall always be given
to actual settlers thereon. 8. A convention to revise, alter or
amend the Constitution may
be called. 9. Amendments may be proposed
in either house.
until changed by law. 2. In regard to removal of the
ment of a new county it shall
which it is formed, etc. 4. Each county shall elect three
county commissioners, their
term of office. 5. Enumeration of the county
officers to be elected.
of such other county, town-
Schedule. 1. All laws of the Territory not in
consistent with the Constitu
tion shall remain in full force. The same of all lawful orders,
judgments, decrees, etc. 3. No crime or criminal offense
committed against the laws of the Territory shall abate by reason of the change to a
State form of government. 4. In regard to the changing of
certain words in the laws of
1. In regard to public lands.
disposed of as provided by law.
to remain the same as while
under the Territory.
Territorial government shall
wise provided for.
fenses against the laws of the
Territory shall not abate. 8. Persons confined under lawful
commitments shall continue
to be confined. 9. All rich processes, etc., shall
continue. 10. All undertakings, bonds, obliga
tions, etc., shall continue.
etc., belonging to the Terri-
erty of the State.
ghall be assumed by the
ing in any Probate Court of
county. 14. All actions, cases and proceed
ings pending in the Supreme and District Courts of the Territory shall be transferred to the United States Circuit
and District Courts. 15. All actions, cases, etc., pending
in the Supreme and District Courts of the Territory shall be transferred to the Supreme and District Courts of the
State. 16. Until otherwise provided for,
the seal of the Territory shall
be the seal of the State. 17. All Territorial, county and
township officers shall continue the same in the State.
PREAMBLE. We, the people of Montana, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of liberty, in order to secure the advantages of a State government, do, in accordance with the provisions of the Enabling Act of Congress, approved the 22d of February, A. D. 1889, ordain and establish this Constitution.
Boundaries. Section 1. The boundaries of the State of Montana shall be as follows, to wit: Beginning at a point formed by the intersection of the twenty-seventh degree of longitude west from Washington with the forty-fifth degree of north latitude, thence due west on the forty-fifth degree of latitude to a point formed by its intersection with the thirty-fourth degree of longitude west from Washington, thence due south along the thirty-fourth degree of longitude to a point formed by its intersection with the crest of the Rocky Mountains, thence following the crest of the Rocky Mountains northward to its intersection with the Bitter Root Mountains, thence northward along the crest of the Bitter Root Mountains to its intersection with the thirty-ninth degree of longitude west from Washington; thence along the thirty-ninth degree of longitude northward to the boundary line of the British possessions; thence eastward along that boundary line to the twenty-seventh degree of longitude west from Washington; thence southward along the twenty-seventh degree of longitude to the place of beginning.
Military Reservations. Section 1. Authority is hereby granted to and acknowledged in the United States to exercise exclusive legislation as provided by the Constitution of the United States, over the military reservations of Fort Assinaboine, Fort Custer, Fort Keough, Fort Maginnis, Fort Missoula and Fort Shaw, as now established by law, so long as said places remain military reservations, to the same extent and with the same effect as if said reservations had been purchased by the United States by consent of the Legislative Assembly of the State of Montana; and the Legislative Assembly is authorized and directed to enact any law necessary or proper to give effect to this article.
Provided, That there be and is hereby reserved to the State the right to serve all legal process of the State, both civil and criminal, upon persons and property found within any of said reservations in all cases where the United States has not exclusive jurisdiction.
A Declaration of Rights of the People of the State of Montana.
Section 1. All political power is vested in and derived from the people; all government of rights originates with the people; is founded upon their will only and is instituted solely for the good of the whole.
Sec. 2. The people of the State have the sole and exclusive right of governing themselves, as a free, sovereign and independent State, and to alter and abolish their Constitution and form of government, whenever they may deem it necessary to their safety and happiness, provided such change be not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States.
Sec. 3. All persons are born equally free, and have certain natural, essential and inalienable rights, among which may be reckoned the right of enjoying and defending their lives and