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Section 13. Construction, connecting with

der military authority forother roads—to receive freight

bidden. from other roads.

3. Dueling - the offender cannot 14. Are public highways - laws to

hoid office. prevent discrimination.

4. Officers of the United States 15. To keep a public ofñce and

not eligible to State office. books meetings and reports 5. Present officers to remain in of directors.

office. 16. Property liable to execution.

6. Oath of office generally. 17. Parallel lines should not

7. Removal for misdemeanor in

consolidate nor be managed

office. jointly.

8. Fees not to be increased nor 18. Consolidation with foreign com

term of office extended. panies.

9. Appointment of officers. 19. Laws in favor of, and imposing

10. Lotteries prohibited. a new liability on the people.

11. Investigation by grand jury. 20. Street railroads.

12. Legislators privileged from ar21. Benefit of future legislation.

rest -- freedom of debate. 22. Officers not to be interested in

ARTICLE XV. business of company.

Mode of Amending the Constitution. 23. Discrimination between coin

1. Constitution may be amended. panies and individuals.

2. Amendments proposed and sub24. Granting free passes to public

mitted to the people. officers prohibited.

3. Convention be called. Banks,


1. Provision as to existing laws, 25. No State bank shall be created

rights and actions. - State shall not own stock in

2. Provisions as to existing oblibanks. 26. Laws creating banks to be sub

gations, prosecutions, etc.

3. Existing county and mitted to the people.


courts. 27. Receiving deposits after bank

4. Criminal courts. is insolvent.

5. Courts of common pleas. ARTICLE XIII.

6. Existing officers to continue. Militia.

7. Appeals returnable to Jefferson

City. 1. Persons liable to military duty. 8. Provision for payment of bond2. Organization of militia.

ed debt. 3. Election of officers.

9. Constitution to be submitted to 4. Volunteer companies.

a vote of the people. 5. Militia privileged from arrest.

10. Clerks to furnish poll-books and 6. Appointment of officers by the


11. Form of ballots. governor.

12. Returns of election-proclama7. Public arms and military rec

tion by governor. ords.

13. Result of election-constitution ARTICLE XIV.

to take effect, when.

14. Schedule to take effect immeMiscellaneous Provisions,

diately. 1. Public lands -lands of the 15. Laws to enforce constitution.

United States exempt from 1 16. Provision as to existing executaxation taxing non-resi

tive officers. dents.

17. Preliminary examinations and 2. Prosecutions for acts done un


PREAMBLE. We, the people of Missouri, with profound reverence for the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, and grateful for his goodness, do, for the better government of the State, establish this Constitution.


Section 1. The boundaries of the State as heretofore estab. lislied by law, are hereby ratified and confirmed. The State shall have concurrent jurisdiction on the river Mississippi, and every other river bordering on the State, so far as the said rivers shall form a common boundary to this State and any other State or States; and the river Mississippi and the navigable rivers and waters leading to the same shall be common highways, and forever free to the citizens of this State and of the United States, without any tax, duty, impost or toll therefor, imposed by this Staie.


Bill of Rights. In order to assert our rights, acknowledge our duties, and proclaim the principles on which our government is founded, we declare:

Section 1. That all political power is vested in and derived from the people; that all government of right originates from the people, is founded upon their will only, and is instituted sely for the good of the whole.

Sec. 2. That the people of this State have the inherent, sole and exclusive right to regulate the internal government and prolice thereof, and to alter and abolish their Constitution and form of government whenever they may deem it necessary to the.. safety and happiness; Provided, such change be not l'epignant to the Constitution of the United States.

Sec. 3. That Missouri is a free and independent State, subject only to the Constitution of the United States; and as the preservation of the States and the maintenance of their governments are necessary to an indestructible Union, and were intended to co-exist with it, the Legislature is not authorized to adopt, nor will the people of this State ever assent to, any amendmint or change of the Constitution of the United States which



may in anywise impair the right of local self-government belong. ing to the people of this State.

Sec. 4. That all constitutional government is intended to promote the general welfare of the people; that all persons have a natural right to life; liberty and the enjoyment of the gains of their own industry; that to give security to these things is the principal office of government, and that when government does not confer this security, it fails of its chief design.

Sec. 5. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience; that no person can, on account of his religious opin. ions, be rendered ineligible to any office of trust or profit under this State, nor be disqualified from testifying, or from serving as a juror; that no human authority can control or interfere with the rights of conscience; that no person ought, by any law, to be molested in his person or estate, on account of his religious persuasion or profession; but the

the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be construed


excuse acts of licentiousness, nor to justify practices inconsistent with the good order, peace or safety of this State, or with the rights of others.

Sec. 6. That no person can be compelled to erect, support or attend any place or system of worship, or to maintain or support any priest, minister, preacher or teacher of any sect, church, creed or denomination of religion; but if any person shall voluntarily make a contract for any such object, he shall be held to the performance of the same.

Sec. 7. That no money shall ever be taken from the public treasury, directly, or indirectly, in aid of any church, sector denomination of religion, or in aid of any priest, preacher, minister or teacher thereof as such; and that no preference shall be given to, nor any discrimination made against, any church, sect or creed of religion, or any form of religious faith or worship.

Sec. 8. That no religious corporation can be established in this State, except such as may be created under a general law for the purpose only of holding the title to such real estate as may be prescribed by law for church edifices, parsonages and cemeteries.

Sec. 9. That all elections shall be free and open; and no power, civil or military, shall at any time interfere to prevent the free exercise of the right of suffrage.

Sec. 10. The courts of justice shall be open to every person, and certain remedy afforded for every injury to person, property or character, and that right and justice should be administered without sale, denial or delay.

Sec. 11. That the people shall be secure in their persons, papers, homes and effects, from unreasonable searches and seizures; and no warrant to search any place, or seize any person or thing, shall issue without describing the place to be searched, or the person or thing to be seized, as nearly as may be; nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation reduced to writing.

Sec. 12. That no person shall, for felony, be proceeded against criminally otherwise than by indictment, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger; in all other cases, offenses shall be prosecuted criminally by indictment or information as concurrent remedies.

Sec. 13. That treason against the State can consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving thein aid and comfort; that no person can be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on his confession in open court; that no person can be attainted of treason or felony by the General Assembly; that no conviction can work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate; that the estates of such persons as may destroy their own lives shall descend or vest as in cases of natural death; and when any person shall be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture by reason thereof.

Sec. 14. That no law shall be passed impairing the freedom of speech; that every person shall be free to say, write or publish whatever he will on any subject, being responsible for all abuse of that liberty; and that in all suits and prosecutions for libel the truth thereof may be given in evidence, and the jury, under the direction of the court, shall determine the law and the fact.

Sec. 15. That no ex post facto law, nor law impairing the obligation of contracts, or retrospective in its operation, or making any irrevocable grant of special privileges or immunities, can be passed by the General Assembly.

Sec. 16. That imprisonment for debt shall not be allowed, except for the non-payment of fines and penalties imposed for violation of law.

Sec. 17. That the right of no citizen to keep and bear :irms in defense of his home, person and property, or in aid of the civil power, when thereto legally summoned, shall be called in question; but nothing herein contained is intended to justify the practice of wearing concealed weapons.

Sec. 18. That no person elected or appointed to any office or employment of trust or profit under the laws of this State, or any ordinance of any municipality in this state, shall hold such office without personally devoting his time to the performance of the duties to the same belonging.

Sec. 19. That no person who is now or may hereafter become a collector or receiver of public money, or assistant or deputy of such collector or receiver, shall be eligible to any office of trust or profit in the State of Missouri under the laws thereof, or of any niunicipality therein, until he shall have accounted for and paid over all the public money for which he may be accountable.

Sec. 20. That no private property can be taken for private use, with or without compensation, unless by the consent of the owner, except for private ways of necessity, and except for drains and ditches across the lands of others for agricultural and sanitary purposes, in such manner as may be prescribed by law; and that whenever an attempt is made to take private property for a use alleged to be public, the question whether the contemplated use be really public shall be a judicial question, and as such judicially determined, without regard to any legislative assertion that the use is public.

Sec. 21. That private property shall not be taken or damaged for public use without just compensation. Such compensation shall be ascertained by a jury or board of commissioners of not less than three freeholders, in such manner as may be prescribed by law; and until the same shall be paid to the owner, or into court for the owner, the property shall not be disturbed or the proprietary rights of the owner therein divested. The fee of land taken for railroad tracks without consent of the owner thereof shall remain in such owner, subject to the use for which it is taken.

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