The Education Systems of Europe
Wolfgang Hörner, Hans Döbert, Botho von Kopp, Wolfgang Mitter
Springer Science & Business Media, May 3, 2007 - Social Science - 879 pages
Education is a paradoxical phenomenon. On the one hand it is universal, as since the period of Enlightenment, it has been declared universal good for everybody. Mo- over, we learnt by historical research following the ideas of world system theory, that since this time as far as its main structures are concerned (compulsory state education given by professional teachers in classrooms...) it took even universal traits. However, on the other hand, the fact, that education became state education – organised or at least controlled by the state – was the beginning of another tradition line: education in the form of state organised educational institutions became a means of creating national identity. Universal inclusion as for the light of reason, shining for everybody is opposed to more or less nationalist exclusion (of all the others) shaping the feature of a particular nation state, with a particular educational system. This fundamental dialectical tension between the universal and the particular, was one to the important motives to make this handbook. One of the central issues of the country studies is precisely to display the relationship between universal v- ues and the search for national identity. Another motive is given by the European dimension of the handbook.
The Way Ahead
academic according administration Albanian areas assessment attend basic education basic school Belarus Bulgaria cantons cation centres classes colleges completed comprehensive school compulsory education compulsory school context courses cultural current school system curricula economic educa education system educational institutions educational policy established European evaluation examination financing foreign language grades grammar school groups gymnasieskola gymnasium higher education implementation individual instruction integration introduced kindergartens Kosovo Latvia learning leaving certificate lower secondary matura Ministry of Education municipalities number of pupils OECD offer organization parents pedagogical political population post-secondary Pre-primary education primary education primary school private schools problems professional programmes qualification regional regulations Republic responsible secondary education secondary level sector skills social special education standards structure studies subjects teacher training teaching technical tertiary education textbooks tion tional upper secondary education upper secondary school vocational education vocational schools vocational training