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the death of Socrates, which was Ol. 95. 1, but the Phædrus was still earlier, being his first composition; so he was between twenty and twenty-nine years of age.
Ρ. 276. Αδώνιδος κηποι.] Corn and seeds of various kinds, sown in shallow earth to spring up soon, which were carried in the procession on the feast of Adonis. Theocritus, Idyll. 15. v. 113. Παρ δ' απαλοι κάποι πεφυλαγμενοι εν ταλαρισκοις
and the Schol. on the passage: see also the Emperor Julian in his Casares: “ Κηποι, οὓς ἁι γυναικες τω της Αφροδιτης ανδρι φυτευουσιν οστρακίοις επαμησαμενοι γην λαχανιαν χλωρησαντα δε ταύτα προς ολιγον αυτικα απομαραινεται. Julian. Op. Edit. Lipsiæ, 1696, pag. 329.
Ib. Αντι τουτων οις λεγων.] Do not, with Serranus, correct it to ἑν τι ; yet read οἷα λεγω.
278. Νυμφῶν νᾶμα και Μουσων.] The Ilyssus was consecrated to the Muses, who had an altar on its banks under the title of Μουσαι Ειλισσιαδες, possibly near the scene of this dialogue.
Ib. Ισοκράτην τον καλον.] Isocrates was now about twentyfive years of age, and had a share in the friendship both of Socrates and of Plato. Laertius, L. 3. c. 8.
279. Πλεον η παιδων.] Subauditur, δι αλλοι ανδρες ; the same ellipsis is used in Plato's 4th Epist.
Η, ΠΕΡΙ ΦΙΛΙΑΣ.
THERE is no circumstance in this dialogue to inform one at what time it is supposed to have happened; but it is certain that Plato wrote it when he was yet a young man, before Ol. 95. 1, for Socrates heard it read. The scene of it is in a Palæstra, then newly built, a little without the walls of Athens near the fountain of Panops, between the Academia and the Lyceum. The interlocutors are Socrates, Hippothales, and Ctesippus,1
1 Νεανισκος τις Παιανιεύς, μαλα καλος τε καγαθος, την φυσιν όσον μεν, ὑβριστης δε, δια το νεος ειναι. In Euthydemo, Plat. Op. V. 1. p. 273. Both Ctesippus and Menexenus were present at Socrates's death. (In Phædone.)
NOTES ON THE GREEK TEXT.
Platon. Op. Serrani, Vol. 2. p. 203.
From 204 to 211.] Thus far the dialogue is very easy and elegant, particularly the short conversation with Lysis, which is an example how children of fortune and family ought to be treated, in order to correct that arrogance which those advantages are apt to inspire, and to win them gradually to reflection and good sense.
P. 204, Mikkos.] Perhaps the same person who is mentioned by Suidas, as a Mytilenean, who settled at Athens, and father to Alcæus the comick poet, who flourished Ol. 97. 4. V. Schol. ad Plutum Aristophan. in Argumento. We see the sophists
two young men of Athens; Lysis, a boy of noble birth and fortune, beloved by Hippothales, and Menexenus,1 also a boy, and cousin to Ctesippus, and friend to Lysis. The characters are, as usual, elegantly drawn; but what is the end or meaning of the whole dialogue, I do not pretend to say. It turns upon the nature and definition of friendship. Socrates starts a hundred notions about it, and confutes them all himself; no
1 The discourse with Menexenus is intended to correct a boy of a bolder and more forward nature than Lysis, by shewing him that he knows nothing; and leaves him in the opinion of his own ignorance. The second title of the dialogue is a false or an incorrect one, for friendship is only by accident a part of the intent of the whole seems to be, to shew in what manner we should converse with young people according to their different dispositions.
frequented the Palæstræ, as the publick resort of the youth, and taught their art there.
P. 204. Пaрara@noeтal.] Enecabitur, conficietur.
Ib. Ως Ερμαια αγουσιν αναμεμιγμενοι, εν ταυτω εισιν δι νεανισκοι Kaι di Taides.] A festival celebrated in all the places of education for boys. We see here how little the severe laws of Solon on this head were observed, which particularly forbade grown persons to be admitted on that occasion. Eschin. Orat. in Timarchum in principio.
⠀ Ib. Haïdoтpißns.] The master of the Palæstra, who taught them their exercise.
207. Επηλυγασαμενος προεστη, read προσεστη, as in p. 210, ἀνεμνησθην ότι και προσεστως, &c.
208. IIαidaywyos.] Commonly some old slave who waited on them to the schools and to the Palæstræ.
211. Opruya.] The passion of the Athenians for fighting quails and game-cocks is well known. See Plutarch in Alcibiade. 213. Either leave out ouк in that passage, отε ηкроâто оUK οὕτως ἔχειν, or read perhaps, ουκ ἡσυχως.
thing is determined, the dialogue is interrupted, and there is an end. Perhaps a second dialogue was designed on the same subject, and never executed. As to all the mysteries which Serranus has discovered in it, they are mere dreams of his own.
The first part of this dialogue is of that kind called Μαιευτικος, and the second part, Πειραστικός.
P. 214. Twv σopwтαтwv.] Empedocles, perhaps, who ascribed the first formation of things to this friendship: ANOTE μev φιλοτητι συνερχομεν εις εν απαντα, &c. D. Laert. L. 8. c. 76. or Anaxagoras, who taught εκ των ὁμοιομερων μικρων σωματων το πᾶν συγκεκρᾶσθαι. Laert. L. 2. c. 8.
219. Kwvelov TEжWкOта.] A quantity of wine, drunk after the cicuta, was believed to prevent its mortal effects.
223. Ην οψε.] It was a law of Solon, τα διδασκαλεία κλειετωσαν προ ἥλιου δυνοντος. (Æschines.)
Η, ΠΕΡΙ ΦΥΣΕΩΣ ΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΥ.
THE title expressing the subject of this dialogue (like that of Lysis) is wrong. Dacier rightly observes, that the titles are commonly nothing to the purpose; but he is strangely mistaken in saying, they are of modern invention, and that Diogenes Laertius makes no mention
NOTES ON THE GREEK TEXT.
Platon. Op. Edit. Serrani, Vol. 2. p. 103.
P. 104. Meyaкλеα εжιтρожоν.] Megacles (the father of Dinomache, the mother of Alcibiades), and Agariste, the mother of Pericles, were brother and sister. Alcibiades was not above three years old, and his brother Clinias was still younger, when they lost their father at the battle of Coronea, Ol. 83. 1.
106. Ievai eπι To ẞnuа.] Boys when they had undergone the Aоkiμaσia before the Thesmothetæ who presided in the court of Heliæa, (V. Lysiam in Diogeiton. p. 508 and 515., Aristophan. in Vespis, v. 576., and Antiphont. de cæde Choreutæ, p. 143, ed. H. Steph. fol.), and were enrolled among the men, though they were for a year excused from all Accтoûрyiai, seem to have been at liberty (at this time of the republick) to vote and speak in the assembly of the people. Therefore, Potter (Archæolog. L. 1, c. 17.) is not correct when he affirms that they could not speak there, who were under thirty years of age. They could not indeed be chosen into the senate, &c. till that age.
Ib. Γραμματα και κιθαρίζειν.] The usual education of the Athenian children from seven years old to fifteen. See Eschines de Axioco, p. 94, ed. Le Clerc, and Aristoph. in Nubibus, v. 961.