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itself at a little distance into the Ilyssus. The spot lay less than a quarter of a mile above the bridge, which led over the river to the temple of Diana Agræa.
P. 246. Kekowvwvηкe de πŋ.] I imagine he means, that the soul of man approaches in perfection to the corporeal part of the Gods. The translation has no affinity to the text here; αχρώματος και ασχηματιστος και αναφης ουσια, the true substance and essence of things, of which the properties are only the consequences; this is the TO OVTWs ov of Plato.
Ib. 'O μev avт kaλos.] The rational and intellectual faculties of the soul.
Ib. 'O de eğ evavтiwv.] The appetites and passions.
250. Μυουμενοι τε και εποπτευοντες.]
An allusion to the
Attick mysteries of Ceres. See Meursius and Potter. So in
the seventh Epistle, p. 333.
251. Kavλos úπо Tâν.] Perhaps we should read etɩ.
253. Ώσπερ άι Βακχαι.] What Bacchanalian ceremony is here alluded to ? See the Ion : Ωσπερ άι Βακχαι αρυττονται εκ των ποταμων μελι και γαλα κατεχομεναι, &c.
256. Hiλoropiav.] Polemarchus, the elder brother of Lysias, was a friend of Socrates, and a philosopher: so Plutarch calls him, "De esu Carnium." Polemarchus had another brother, called Euthydemus. Polemarchus was murdered by the Thirty Tyrants, Ol. 94. 1. See Lysias in Eratosthenem, p. 196.
257. Γλυκυς αγκων.] Erasmus explains it in his Adagia, (Evonua pwvei) as though in a part of a river, where there was a long and dangerous winding, the sailors used this piece of flattery by way of propitiating the Nile: but this does not fully clear up the passage here. That this proverb was so used may appear from these words of Athenæus, L. 12, p. 516. Τον τόπον καλουσι Γυναικων αγωνα, γλυκυν αγκώνα : which last may mean, a specious term to cover their ignominy; Casaubon does not explain it here it seems applied to such as speak one thing, and mean another.
258. Edoče Tov.] He alludes to the form of a Psephisma, Εδοξε τω δημω· Τισαμενος ειπε, &c. as H. Stephanus observes.
Here they pursue their conversation during the hours of noon, till the sun grows lower and the heat becomes more mild.
Ρ. 258. Δαρειου δυναμιν.] See Epist. 7,
Ib. Ερωτας, ει δεόμεθα ; τινος μεν ουν, &c.] I do not see the transition, and I imagine that some words are wanting here ; and also, after KЄкληνтαι.
259. NUOTаŠovтas.] The Greeks usually slept at noon in summer, as it is still the custom in Italy and Spain, and in other hot countries. Xenoph. Græc. Hist. L. 5. p. 557.
Ib. Ασιτον και αποτον.] The cicada is an animal with wings, the size of a man's thumb, of a dark brown colour, which sits on the trees and sings, that is, makes a noise like a cricket; but much more shrill, and without any intervals, which grows louder as the sun grows hotter. Some supposed it to live on the air, others on dew only. Vid. Meleagrum, Niciam, et alios in Anthologiâ, L. 3. p. 265, ed. H. Steph. and Plin. Nat. Hist. L. 28, c. 26.
Ο θεσπεσιος οξυμελης αχέτας
Θαλπεσι μεσημβρινοις ὑφ' ήλιω μανεις βολ.
Aristophan. Aves, v. 1095. It does in reality live on the exsudations of plants, having a proboscis, like flies, to feed with; but is capable of living a long time, like many of the insect race, without any nourishment at all. The tettigometra, which is this creature in its intermediate state between a worm and a fly, was esteemed a delicacy to eat by the Greeks. See Aldrovand. de Insectis, and Reaumur, Hist. des Insectes, V. 5, Dissert. 4.
Ib. IIрeσẞuтαтη.] Hesiod names the Muses in the same order in which their names are inscribed on the books of Herodotus; and says, that Calliope was ȧraσewv πроpeρeστatη. Theogon, v. 75. See also Ciceronem in Bruto, and Quintilian, L. 3. c. 1.
260. know i Aaкwv.] Perhaps Aleman; though the words do not seem to be poetry.
261. Gorgias came to Athens on an embassy from the
We may nearly fix the year when this conversation is supposed to have happened. Lysias was now at Athens; he arrived there from Thurii in Italy in the
Leontines, Ol. 88. 2. (See Diod. Sic. L. 12, p. 313.) when Socrates was about forty-three years old. (V. Ciceronem in Bruto, et Quintil. L. 3. c. 1.) Tisias and Corax of Syracuse, and Gorgias the Leontine, first composed treatises on the art of speaking.
Ρ. 261. Ουκ αρα μονον.] "Socrates apud Platonem in Phædro palam, non in judiciis modo et concionibus, sed in rebus privatis etiam et domesticis, rhetoricen esse demonstrat." (Quintil. L. 2, c. 21.) Plato here makes knowledge, that is, the perception of truth, the foundation of eloquence. IIep Tаνта та λeɣoμeva μια τις τεχνη, είπερ εστιν, αυτη αν ειη, ήτις δια τ' εσται, πᾶν παντι ὁμοιοῦν των δυνατων, και δις δυνατον· και, αλλου ὁμοιοῦντος και αποκρυπτομένου, εις φως αγειν. This has some resemblance to Locke's definition of knowledge: "It is (says he) the perception of the connection and agreement, or of the disagreement and repugnancy, of any of our ideas." Locke's Essay, B. 4. ch. 1.
261. Exeαтikov Пaλaμndŋv.] Quintilian informs us, that the person here meant is Alcidamas of Elea. Laertius takes it to be meant of Zeno Eleates, who is looked upon as the inventor of disputation (ǹ diaλektikη) and of logick, and who was at Athens when Socrates was not above eight years old, that is, above fifty years earlier than the time of this dialogue; but his contemporary Empedocles was the first who cultivated rhetorick as an art, and taught it to Gorgias who published a book on that subject.
N.B. Athenæus (L. 13. p. 592.) mentions Alcidamas, ò Aaïrns, (read & Elearns, not Exaïrns, as Casaubon corrects it from Suidas); he says, that Alcidamas was scholar to Gorgias, and had written Encomia on Lagis and Naïs, two famous courtezans from Athens; whence, it seems, that he must have flourished about this time, and perhaps near twenty years after. There is the right reading of it in Athenæus, L. 9. p. 397, Ο Ελεατικος Παλαμηδης ovoμaтoλoyos εon, &c. which is a name he bestows on Ulpian of Tyre, an indefatigable hunter after words. Casau
forty-seventh year of his age, Ol. 92. 1.
Euripides is also mentioned as still in the city: he left it to go into Macedonia, Ol. 92. 4, and, consequently, it must have
bon has not explained this. See also Laertius in Protagoras, L. 9. 54. We have still an oration of Alcidamas in the person of Ulysses against Palamedes. It may be also observed, that Laertius (L. 9. c. 25.) when he mentions Zeno Eleates, cites by mistake the Sophistes, instead of the Phædrus of Plato. Isocrates, in his oration on Helena, indeed says, that Zeno in his disputations would shew the same things to be possible and impossible.
' Ρ. 262. Εστιν ουν όπως τεχνικος κτλ.] Read μεταβιβαζων απαγειν—to answer to διαφεύγειν.
264. Xаλкn.] Epitaph on Midas, by some attributed to Homer and by others to Cleobulus of Lindias. See Vit. Homeri, Herodoti ut dicitur, (V. Herodot. Edit. Gronov. 1715, p. 559.) and D. Laertius in Cleobulo, L. 1, c. 89.
265. Definition of a general complex idea, ЕK TV v αισθησεων εις εν λογισμω ξυναιρουμενον.—Εις μιαν τε ιδεαν συνορῶντα αγειν τα πολλαχη διεσπαρμένα.
266. Almost all these persons are mentioned by Quintilian L. 3, 1., as having written arts of rhetorick, and were all now flourishing, Ol. 92, except Tisias of Syracuse, Evenus of Paros, Protagoras of Abdera, and Licymnius.
Ib. See Quintilian, L. 4. c. 1. 2. 3. and L. 5. c. 1. 4. and L. 8. c. 5. for an explanation of the terms, Προοιμιον, Διηγησιν, Μαρτυριας, Τεκμηρια, Πιστωσιν, Ελεγκος, Διπλασιολογια, Γνωμο λογια, Εικονολογια, Ενεπεια, Επανοδος or Ανακεφαλαιωσις.
267. Οικτρογοων επι γηρας και πενιαν ἑλκομενων.] An allusion to some poet he means that Thrasymachus had gained great wealth by his art.
268. Διεστηκος το ητριον.] A metaphor from an unequal and ill-woven texture.
269. Μελιγηρυν Αδραστον.] An allusion to Tyrtæus:
Ουδ' ει Τανταλιδεω Πέλοπος βασιλεύτερος ειη,
Γλωσσαν δ' Αδρηστου μειλιχογηρυν έχοι.
happened in some year of that Olympiad, probably the 2d or 3d, and Plato must have written it in less than ten years afterwards, for his Lysis was written before
so that perhaps we should read in this place μειλιχογηρυν for μελίγηρυν.
Ρ. 270. Νου τε και άνοιας. ας.] He (i.e. Anaxagoras) attributed the disposition of the universe to an intelligent cause, or mind, whence he himself was called Noûs. He was nearly of the same age with Pericles, and came to Athens Ol. 75. 1, where he passed about thirty years.
Ib. Ιπποκρατει.] That famous physician was then about fifty years of age; and his works were universally read.
272. Αλλα του πιθανον.] See the allusion to this passage in Quintilian, L. 2, c. 15.
273. Η αλλος όστις δη ποτ' ων τυγχάνει, και ὁποθεν χαιρει ονομαζόμενος.] The art, which bore the name of Tisias, was not certainly known to be genuine. He says this in allusion to the custom of invoking the gods by several names. See Callim. Hymn. ad Jovem. Hor. Od. Sæcul. &c. &c. See also Plato in Protagoras, p. 358. and in Cratylus, p. 400. and in Euthydemus, p. 288.
274. Θεῦθ.] The Egyptian deity, Mercury, to whom the bird Ibis was sacred. Vid. Platon. Philebum, Edit. Serrani, vol. 2. p. 18. Επειδη φωνην απειρον, &c.
275. This discourse of Thamus (or Jupiter Ammon) on the uses and inconveniences of letters is excellent; he gives a lively image of a great scholar, that is, of one who searches for wisdom in books alone : Τουτο των μαθοντων ληθην μεν εν ψυχαις παρέξει μνημης αμελητησια, άτε δια πιστιν γραφης εξωθεν ὑπ' αλλοτριων τυπων, ουκ ενδοθεν αυτους ὑφ' αυτών, αναμιμνησκομενους• ουκουν μνημης, αλλ' ὑπομνησεως, φαρμακον εὑρες σοφιας δε τοις μαθηταις δοξαν, ουκ αληθειαν, πορίζεις. πολυήκοοι γαρ σοι γενομενοι ανευ διδαχης, πολυγνωμονες ειναι δοξωσι, αγνωμονες, ώς επι το πληθος, οντες και χαλεποι ξυνειναι· δοξοσοφοι γεγονοτες αντι σοφων.
Ib. Δρυος και πετρας.] An allusion to that saying, Απο δρυος, η απο πέτρης. Hom. Il. v. 126.