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Callias was in love with Autolycus, the son of Lyco, who gained the victory (while yet a boy) in the Pancratium during the greater Panathenæa, Ol. 89. 4, upon which occasion Callias gave an entertainment to his friends 1 at his house in the Piræeus. He had been scholar to the sophists Protagoras, Gorgias, and Prodicus; was very wealthy; and had learned the art of memory from Hippias of Elis, at the recommendation of Antisthenes. He was II poçevos of the Lacedæmonians who came to Athens; was hereditary priest of the Eleusinian deities, ó Aadoúxos; was remarkable for his nobility and the gracefulness of his person ;2 he had two sons, who were instructed by Evenus, the Parian sophist;3 he entertained Protagoras, Prodicus, and Hippias, and other sophists, their companions, in his house, Ol. 90. 1.4

NICERATUS. He was son to the famous Nicias; was present at the symposium of Callias, Ol. 89. 4, and then newly married. He could repeat by heart the whole Iliad and Odyssee, and had been scholar to Stesimbrotus and Anaximander. He was very wealthy and somewhat covetous; was fond of his wife, and beloved by her; 5 was scholar to Damon, the famous musician, who had been recommended to his father by Socrates ; 6 and finally, he was put to death by order of the Thirty, with his uncle Eucrates.?


1 Xenophon, Symposium ; Athenæus, L. 5, p. 216. 2 Ibid.

3 Plato, Apolog. 4 Plato, Protagoras. Xenophon, Sympos.

6 Plato in Lachete. Xenophon, Gr. Hist. L. 2. Andocides de Mysteriis.




He was extremely poor, but with a contempt of wealth ; was present in the symposium of Callias, where he proved that riches and poverty are in the mind alone, and not in externals. His way of life was easy and contented : he passed whole days in the company of Socrates, who taught him (he says) to be mentally rich. He was much beloved in the city, and his scholars were esteemed by the publick. He recommended Prodicus and Hippias the Elean to Callias ;1 bore great affection to Socrates, and was present at his death.2

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A man of warmth and eagerness of temper; a friend to the liberties of the people; he fled to and returned with Thrasybulus; he died before Socrates's trial; for he is mentioned in Socrates's Apology, as then dead, and in the Gorgias, as then living : his death must therefore have happened between Ol. 93. 4. and Ol. 95. 1. de consulted the Delphian oracle to know if any man were wiser than Socrates. His brother, Chærecrates, survived him.4


He was the son of Antipho of Cephisia : 5 and was present at the death of Socrates.6

1 Xenophon, Sympos.
3 Vid. Charmidem, p. 153.
6 Plato, Apol.

2 Plato, Phæd.
4 Apol. Socrat.
6 Phædo.


APOLLODORUS. He was brother to Aiantodorus :1 was a man of small abilities, but of an excellent heart, and remarkable for the affection he bore to Socrates;2 he was present in the prison at the time of his death. He lived at Phalerus, of which Anuos he was ;4 was but a boy when Socrates was fifty-three years old, and must therefore have been under thirty-seven, at the time of Socrates's death. He was called Mavikos from the warmth of his temper.

PHÆDO. He was an Elean. See his account of Socrates's last moments.5

SIMMIAS. He was a Theban, and a young man at the time of Socrates's death (as was Cebes), at which they were both present. He had received some tincture of the Pythagorean doctrines from Philolaus of Crotona ; and was inquisitive and curious in the search of truth, far above all prejudice and credulity..

He was a Theban. (Vid. Simmiam.)

HERMOGENES. He was a man of piety, and believed in divination. He was present in Callias's symposium ; was a person

3 Id.

Apol. Socrat. 4 Plato, Sympos.

2 Phædo.
5 Plato, Phædo.

6 Plato, Phædo.

of great honesty, mild, affable, and soberly cheerful :1 not rich, and a man of few words ;? was son to Hipponicus and brother to Callias. He was present at the death of Socrates. 4

CHARMIDES. He had a considerable estate in lands before the Peloponnesian war, which he thence entirely lost, and was reduced to great poverty. He was present at the symposium of Callias, where he discoursed on the advantages and pleasures of being poor. He ran at the stadium, at Nemea, contrary to Socrates's advice. He was of extreme beauty when a youth.6



ÆSCHYLUS. He was of Phlius, and was introduced by Antisthenes to Socrates.

CRITO. He was father to Critobūlus; was of Alopecæ, and about the same age with Socrates.? He made the proposal to contrive the escape of Socrates out of prison, and to send him into Thessaly ; 8 he attended him daily in his confinement, and at the time of his death; he received his last orders : he closed his eyes, and took care of his funeral.9

1 Xenoph. Sympos.
3 Plato, Cratylus.
6 Plato, Charmid.

2 Ibid. p. 391 and 408.
4 Plato, Phædo. 5 Plato, Theages.
7 Plato, Apolog.

8 Id. Crito. 9 Id. Phædo.




This is supposed to be the first Dialogue which Plato wrote ; εχει γαρ (says Laertius 1) μειρακιωδες τι το προβλημα: Δικαιαρχος δε και τον τροπον της γραφης όλον επιμεμφεται, ως φορτικον. Dionysius Halicarnas

. sensis 2 calls it one of his most celebrated discourses ; and from it he produces examples both of the beauty and of the blemishes of Plato's style, of the xapartmp coxvos kai apelns, which is all purity, all grace and perspicuity; and of the unlos, wherein he sometimes

' 1 Diog. Laert. L. 3, c. 38. (c. 25 edit. Kraus. Lipsiæ, 1759).

Περι της Δημοσθενούς δεινοτητος. p. 270. V. 2, ed. Hudsoni. He attributes the first to Plato's education in the company of Socrates; the latter to his imitation of Gorgias and Thucydides. Vid. et Epist. ad Cn. Pompeium, p. 202.



Platonis Opera, Edit. Serrani H. Steph. 1578, Vol. 3. Vol. 3. p. 227. Akoumevw.] Acumenus was father to Eryximachus, both of them physicians of note, and friends of Socrates.

Ib. Ev Tols Opouois.] Places in the Gymnasia, where people exercised themselves by walking a great pace, or by running. See Plato's Euthydemus, p. 273. IIepletaTELTNV EV TW KATAOTEYW Apouw, &c.

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