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salt, swine, garlick, &c., to sell at the Athenian markets, and bought corn there, &c. The Boeotians (see Irene v. 1003 and 4.) sold them water-fowl and wild-fowl of various sorts, manufactures of rushwork, as mats, wicks for lamps, &c., and fish from their lakes, particularly excellent eels.

883. The 'Oλwv Kpiois of Eschylus is here parodied. 1000. It is certain that this comedy was played during the Lenæa, and many parts of it seem a representation of the festival itself, as v. 238, where Dicaopolis and his family perform sacrifice to Bacchus, and here is the Certamen Bibendi, used in the Xoa: but we are not told that this ceremony was used except on the second day of the Anthesteria. Hence it seems probable, that it was used alike in the Lenæa.

1029. Οὐ δημοσιευων τυγχανω. The publick elected and gave a salary to certain physicians (see Aves, v. 585, and Plutus, v. 408) who took no fees from particular people.

It appears from some of the scenes in this comedy, that the Prytanes were present in the publick assemblies, seated in the place of honour; that they kept order there, and commanded the archers to apprehend any one who made a disturbance; and that they produced ambassadors to the people, and dismissed the assembly. Ambassadors were entertained in the Prytaneum at the invitation of the senate.


Olymp. 88. 4. In Lenæis, Mense Posideone.

v. 9. Olympus, the scholar of Marsyas, invented the symphony of flutes. 19. Alludes to Euripides. 61. Adel de xpnoμovs. Alluding to the Sibyll's oracles.

123. Alluding to the oracles of Bacis. The Scholiast says there were three of that name.

282. It seems, that Cleon, for his success at Sphacteria, had a publick maintenance allowed him in the Prytaneum.

399. The sottishness of Cratinus.-Morsimus, the son of Philocles, wrote Tragedy. 404. The Teйрiππоι of Simonides cited.

504. This was the first drama which Aristophanes brought upon the stage in his own name, (see Vespæ, v. 1013.) and he himself played the character of Cleon in it. 517. Ειδως ὁ ̓παθεν Μαγνης ἅμα ταις πολιαις κατιούσαις, &c.

Magnes, the comick poet, had great success in his plays, named, Βαρβιτιδες, Ορνιθες, Ψῆνες, Βατραχοι, Avdo, but was hissed off the stage in his decline.

523. Κρατίνου μεμνημενος. Cratinus-his ancient glory is declared; but he afterwards grew negligent, drunken, and despised in his old age. Connas, the tibicen, lost his former reputation.

524. The passage cited from the Pytine of Cratinus in the Scholia must either not be in that drama, or the poet must allude here to some other similar passage; as the Pytine was not played till the following year, and (as the Scholia say afterwards) written upon the provocation here given by Aristophanes.

534. Crates; his various success.


assigns his reasons for not before exhibiting any drama in his own name.

586. The comick chorus (as the Scholiast informs us, and see also Aves, v. 298) consisted of twenty-four persons, the tragick chorus but of fifteen. They were (sometimes) composed of men, women, and children, mixed, as in the Vespa, &c. Casaubon, in his notes to v. 495, gives an account of the Parabasis and of its seven parts, namely, the Κομματιον, Παραβασις (proprie dicta), Μακρον oι Πνιγος, Στροφη, Επιρρημα, Αντιστροφη, και Αντεπιρρημα.

596. The humour of these lines, and of the naval expedition of the horses, is hardly intelligible at present.

701. IIpoedpia was an honour conferred on principal citizens for their services: every one was obliged to give them place in the assembly, the senate, the theatre, &c. Cleon had this honour after his success at Sphacteria.

782. Την εν Σαλαμίνι. It is plain what part he means: but why does he call it so?

790. ETOS Oуdoov. Must be understood of the eighth year only beginning.

810. Ω πολις Αργους. The sharpness of this parody of Euripides consists in this: Cleon, under a pretence of an embassy to Argos, was suspected of carrying on a

private correspondence with the Spartans, on the subject of restoring the prisoners he had made at Sphacteria. (See v. 463.)

851. Here is a good account of the ostracism, in the Scholia, but with some errours. It is said to be in use with the Argives, Megareans and Milesians; but Phæax in his oration on the subject, spoken probably not many years after this, affirms the contrary; Μονοι γαρ αυτου των Ελληνων χρωμεθα, και ουδεμια των αλλων πολιων eleλei μiμŋoɑola; and it is not likely, that those cities should have adopted it, after it ceased to be in use at Athens, which took place Olymp. 91. 1. In enumerating several great men exostracised, he mentions Alcibiades, who never was so.

908. The ships were delivered to the Trierarchs, by the Zrparnyou (who seem to have appointed them) and belonged to the publick; but the Trierarch, at his own expense, repaired and furnished them with all necessaries. The Euopopai were paid by the richer citizens, a catalogue of whom seems to have been drawn by the Στρατηγοι.

947. The custom of the steward, or head-servant, keeping his master's seal.

950. Θρίον εξωπτημενον. There are three receipts, in the Scholia, of Greek cookery, to make a Opîov. The 1st was in this manner: they boiled rice, or fine flour in grains (called Xovôpos) till it was tender; then they kneaded it up with new cheese, and eggs, wrapped up the whole in a fig-leaf, and boiled it in a soup of broth of meat; then fried it brown in honey, and served it up to table with the honey in the dish. 2. A second

sort was made of flour, lard, or the fat of a kid, milk, and yolks of eggs, boiled in a fig-leaf. 3. The third sort was, the brains of any animal with garum (the pickle of fish) and cheese; the whole put in a fig-leaf, and baked over the fire.

959. Μολγον-μυρρινου— Σμικύθην και Κυριον— obscure passages. The Scholia assist us very little here. 1046. Πεντεσυριγγον ξύλον. This wooden machine had five holes in it to receive the hands, feet, and neck of the prisoners, serving at once for the pillory and for the stocks.

1300. It is false to say, that the Athenians had no connection with, or thoughts of, Carthage, (see Isocrates de Pace, 177.) whatever the commentators may say; their ambition extended itself in proportion to their conquests, and if their Sicilian expedition had succeeded, they had actually thoughts of attacking that great republick: Thucydides at least tells us, that this was Alcibiades's view. L. 6. c. 15.

1375. Συνερκτικος γαρ εστι, &c. This imitates the turn of phrase then in use among the young gentlemen of Athens, who had deserted the country, and the more manly exercises of agriculture, hunting, &c., and divided their time between the effeminate pleasures of the city and the publick assemblies, in which they valued themselves upon their eloquence, and the new art of speaking, then, perhaps, taught by the sophists. The terms they use (as the Scholiast observes) bear a double meaning; and he rightly explains the sense of καταδακτυλίζειν. There is no doubt, but that this line is spoken by the chorus to Demus, who represents the people.

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