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human passions and appetites, the part of man which most resembles the divinity, ought alone to be implicitly obeyed in a well-governed state.
P. 715. The first address to the citizens of the new colony, is to inculcate the belief of providence and of divine justice, humility, moderation, obedience to the laws, and piety to the gods and to parents: this should be by way of proœmium to the laws; for free men are not to be treated like slaves; they are to be taught and to be persuaded, before they are threatened and punished.
P. 721. The laws of marriage, and the reasons and inducements to observe them, are stated.
P. 722. The necessity and the nature of general and of particular introductions are stated.
adds, that by these means, Δημοκρατια εξ Αριστοκρατιας συνεβαινε. (Politic. L. 2. c. 9.)
P. 714. To σvμpeрov έavтw.] See de Republ. L. 1. p. 338. This was the doctrine of Thrasymachus, and it is in appearance that of Montesquieu in his Esprit des Loix; but this great man did not dare to speak his mind, in a country almost despotically governed, without disguise. Let any one see the amiable picture which Montesquieu draws of freer governments, and, in contrast to it, his idea of a court, and they will not be at a loss to know his real sentiments. That constitution and policy which is founded (as he says himself) on every virtue, must be the only one worthy of human nature.
716. Ως φασιν ανθρωπος.] He alludes to a principle of Protagoras (V. Theæt. p. 152.)
720. The method of practising physick in these times is observable.
HEADS OF THE FIFTH DIALOGUE.
P. 726. After he has shewed the reason of that duty which men owe to the gods and to their parents, he comes to that duty which we owe to ourselves; and first, of the reverence due to our own i soul; that it consists not in flattering its vanity, nor indulging its pleasures, nor in soothing its indolence, nor in satisfying its avarice.
P. 728. The second honours are due to our body, whose perfection is not placed in excess of strength, of bulk, of swiftness, of beauty, nor even of health, but in a mediocrity of all these qualities; for a redundancy,2 or a deficiency, in any one of them is always prejudicial to the mind.
The same holds with regard to fortune. The folly 1 Παντων των αυτου κτηματων μετα θεους ψυχη θειοτατον, οικειοτατον ον. p. 728.
2 Τα μεν γαρ χαυνους τας ψυχας και θρασειας ποιει, τα δε ταπειναστε και ανελευθερους. p. 728.
3 Η μεν γαρ νεων ακολακευτος ουσια, των δε αναγκαίων μη ενδεής, αυτη πασῶν μουσικωτατη τε και αριστη ξυμφωνουσα γαρ ἡμῖν και ξυναρμοττουσα εις άπαντα άλυπον τον βιον απεργαζεται. p. 729.
of heaping up riches for our children is exposed, as the only valuable inheritance which we can leave them is a respect for virtue. The reverence due to youth is inculcated. True education consists not in precept, but in example.
The duty to relations and to friends: strict justice, hospitality, and compassion, are due to strangers and foreigners, but above all to suppliants.
What is that habit of the mind which best becomes a man of honour and a good citizen. Veracity is the prime virtue. Justice consists in this: not only to do no injury, but to prevent others from doing any, and to assist the magistrate in punishing those who commit them. Temperance and wisdom: the persons who possess these or any other virtues, deserve our praise; those, who impart them to others, and multiply their influence, are worthy of double honours. The use of emulation in a state: the hatefulness of envy and detraction.
P. 731. Spirit and indignation are virtues, when employed against crimes and vices, which admit of no other cure than extreme severity:1 yet they are not inconsistent with lenity and tender compassion, when we consider that 2 no man is voluntarily wicked; and that the fault is in his understanding, and not in his intention. The blindness of what is called self-love. Excessive joy and sorrow are equally condemned.
1 Χαλεπα, και δυσίατα, η και το παραπαν ανίατα, αδικήματα. (See the Gorgias.)
2 Vid. Protagoram, p. 357.—Η γαρ δι' αμαθιαν, η δι' ακρατειαν, η δι' αμφοτερα του σωφρονειν ενδεης ων, ζη ὁ πᾶς ανθρωπινος οχλος. Ρ. 734.
P. 732. A life of virtue is preferable 1 to any other, even with respect to its pleasures. (This passage is admirable.)
P. 736. The method of purgation requisite in forming a society, in order to clear it of its noxious parts, either by punishments, or by sending out colonies.
P. 737. The number of citizens limited. Equal division of lands among them. The institution of temples and sacred rites, in which nothing of novelty is to be permitted, nor the slightest alteration 2 made; but ancient opinions and traditions are to be religiously followed. Festivals and general assemblies serve to familiarise the citizens to one another, and to bring the whole people acquainted with the temper and character of each particular man.
P. 739. The recommendation of his first scheme of government laid down in the book de Republicâ, in which all things are in common; and the whole state, their possessions, their families, their passions,3 are so united as that they may all act together, like the faculties of a single person. The present scheme comes next to it in perfection.
The number of the shares allotted to the citizens is never to be diminished nor increased. Each man is to choose one among his sons who is to succeed to his portion; the rest to be given in adoption to those who have none of their own. The supreme magistrate is to
1 Vid. de Republica, p. 581. L. 9. Philebum, p. 61. et Protagoram.
2 Τουτων Νομοθετῃ το σμικροτατον ἁπαντων ουδεν κινητεον. 3 Vid. de Republ. L. 5. p. 462.
preside over this equality, and to preserve it. If the number of children exceed the number of shares, he may send out a colony; if it fall short, he may (in cases of great necessity) introduce the sons of foreigners. No alienation of lands to be permitted.
P. 741. The increase of fortune by commerce is to be prohibited, and the use of gold or silver small money, of a species not valued, nor in request with other people, only permitted for the ordinary uses of life. The common coin of Greece is to be in the hands of the publick, or employed only on occasion of an embassy, or of an expedition into foreign states. No private person may go abroad without leave of the government; and if he bring back with him any foreign money, he must deposit it in the hands of the magistrate, or he, and all who are privy to the concealment, shall forfeit twice the value, and incur disgrace.
P. 742. No securities shall be given among citizens in any case no fortune paid on a marriage; no money lent on interest.
The folly of a legislator who thinks of making a great, a flourishing, a rich, and a happy state, without regard to the virtue1 of the inhabitants.
P. 743. The inconsistency of great wealth 2 and of great virtue. The good men will never acquire any thing by unjust means, nor ever refuse to be at any expense on decent and honest occasions. He, therefore, who scruples 3 not to acquire by fair and by unfair 1 Vid. L. 4. p. 707.
2 V. de Republ. L. 4. p. 421. and L. 8. p. 552.
3 Η εκ δικαιου και αδικου κτησις πλεον η διπλασια εστι της εκ του δικαιου μονον· τα τε αναλωματα μητε καλως μητε αισχρως X