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great bulk and beauty in the way, that led from the city of Gnossus to the temple and grotto of Jupiter, (where Minos was believed to have received his laws from the god himself) they enter into conversation on the policy and constitution of the Cretans.

There is no prooemium nor introduction to the dialogue, as there is to most of Plato's writings. I speak of that kind of prooemium usual with Plato, which informs us often of the occasion and of the time of the dialogue, and of the characters of the persons introduced in it. In reality the entire four first books of "the Laws" are but introductory to the main subject, as he tells us himself in the end of the fourth book. p. 722.




P. 625. The institutions of Minos were principally directed to form the citizens to war. The great advantages of a people superiour in military skill over the rest of mankind are stated.1 Every people is naturally in a state of war with its neighbours 2; even

1 Xenophon makes the following observation: Exev@epias οργανα και ευδαιμονιας την πολεμικην επιστημην και μελετην δι θεοι τοις ανθρωποις απεδειξαν —τοις αεί εγγυτατω των όπλων ουσι, τουτοις και οικειοτατα εστιν & αν βουλωνται. Cyropaed. L. 7. p. 549. See also Ephorus ap. Strab. L. 10. p. 480.

2 Πασαις προς πάσας τας πολεις πολεμος ακηρυκτος κατα φυσιν These are the original expressions in this place.



P. 625. Ta έvoσiria.] These assemblies were styled by the Cretans Avopeia (or rather Avdpia, see Aristot. in Polit. L. 2. c. 10.) as they were also by the Lacedæmonians, who changed the name to Piditia. (Strabo L. 10. p. 488). The manner of conducting them may be seen at large from Dosiadas's history of that country in Athenæus, L. 4. p. 143.

Ib. Аπоvα.] See Plutarch. in Lycurgo.

Ib. Ať evvatov eToÛS.] See the Minos of Plato, and Strabo. L. 10. p. 476. et L. 16. p. 762.

particular cities, nay private families are in a like situation within themselves, where the better and more rational part are always contending for that superiority, which is their due, over the lower and the less reasonable. An internal war is maintained in the breast of each particular man who labours to subdue himself by establishing the empire of reason over his passions and his desires.

P. 628. A legislator, who makes it the great end of his constitution to form the nation to war, is shewn to be inferiour to him who reconciles the members of it among themselves, and prevents intestine tumults and divisions.

P. 631. The view of the true lawgiver is to train


P. 625. 'H TWV Оeттaλwv.] Vid. Menonem, p. 70. et Herodotum. L. 7. p. 268.

Ib. Ηδε γαρ ανωμαλος.] "Quoniam adeo frequentes in Cretâ sunt montes, rara sunt istic campestria." P. Bellonius, L. 1. c. 5. "Quoique la Candie soit un riche païs-les deux tiers de ce royaume ne sont que des montagnes seches, pelées, desagréables, escarpées, taillées a plomb, et plus propres pour des chèvres que pour des hommes." Tournefort, Lett. 2. p. 109. vol. 1.

Ib. Twv de Tośwv.] Vid. Ephorum ap. Strabonem fusè. L. 10. p. 480. "Cretenses etiam hodie (circ. A.D. 1550.) veterem consuetudinem sequentes naturæ impulsu, Scythico arcu se exercere solent. Quin et ipsi pueri in incunabulis si irascantur et ejulent, ostenso illis arcu aut sagittâ in manus datâ, placantur; propterea ipsos etiam Turcas arcus jaculatione superant." Bellonius, L. 1. c. 5. Which is confirmed by Tournefort, who was there one hundred and fifty years after Belon. See Lett. 2. p. 100. V. 1.

626. Ω θελε. ] Vid. Menonem, p. 99. et Aristot. Eth.

Nichom. L. 7. c. 1.



the mind and manners of his people to the virtues in their order, that is, to wisdom, to temperance, and to justice, and, in the fourth place, to valour. The


Ρ. 629. Προς τον πολεμον μαλιστα.] Yet this was Plato's real judgment concerning the constitutions of Minos and of Lycurgus, as may be seen by his description of a timocracy, in the eighth book De Republ. p. 548.

Ib. Διαβαντες δε ευ.] The Spartans, when they passed the frontier of their own state to enter into the territory of an enemy, always performed sacrifice, which was called ra diaBarnpia Ovεiv: and if the victims proved inauspicious, they retired, and gave over their enterprise. This sense of the word diaẞnyai seems peculiar to that people.

Ib. Των μισθοφόρων.] In Plato's time (about Ol. 106,) and soon after, the intestine tumults in the Greek cities, joined to a sort of fashion, which prevailed, of going to seek their fortune in a foreign service, had so depopulated Greece, that Isocrates tells Philip of Macedon, that he might form a better and stronger army out of these mercenaries, than he could out of the citizens themselves, who continued in their own country. The strength of the Persian king's armies was entirely composed of these Greeks, as was that of his enemies also the kings of Egypt, and of Cyprus, and the revolted vice-roys in Asia Minor. They were also employed by Athens, and by other states of Greece, to save their own troops; so that the Athenian heavy-armed infantry now consisted of mercenaries, though the citizens themselves served as rowers on board the fleet; just contrary to what had been the ancient practice, when the ships were manned by the Eevo, and slaves, and the Athenians themselves composed the 'Οπλῖται.

Ib. A fragment of Tyrtæus, Our' av pvnoɑiny, &c. 630. A fragment of Theognis, Iɩσтos avηρ Xpvσov, &c. 631. Ovê Elσi μarηv.] Vid. Plat. de Republ. p. 544.

Ib. Erikovovμevovs.] There seems something defective in the syntax in several parts of this period.

method he ought to lay down in the disposition of his laws is stated.

P. 634. The fault of the Cretan and of the Lacedæmonian laws is, that they do not fortify the soul as well against pleasure as against pain. Youth is not permitted to examine into the rectitude of those laws by which they are governed, nor to dispute about them; this is the privilege of age, and only to be practised in private.

P. 635. The division of the citizens into companies, (called Evoσiria) which daily assembled to eat together in publick, was apt to create seditions and conspiracies.


P. 633. Tρiтov ʼn тетаρтоν.] Does Plato here allude to the order in which he has ranged the virtues, (which, however, is not very clear, except that he ranges valour in the fourth place)? or does he allude to the heads which he has laid down for a legislator to proceed with method? in which the laws that are to fortify the mind against pleasure and pain, and the passions which they produce, come under the third and fourth head.

Ib. KρuжTelα Tis.] Vid. Plutarch. in Lycurgo.

Ib. Tvμvoжaidiais.] Plutarch, ibid. Propert. L. 3. Eleg. 13. These exercises were performed during a solemn festival held in honour of Apollo, at which strangers were permitted to be present in Sparta.

635. Þužeiσ0αι TOUS.] The translation is very deficient here: the sense is this; "They will fly before such as have been fortified by exercise and habit against labour, pain, and terror, and will become their slaves:" and afterwards, Aovλevσovoi de τροπον έτερον, &c. They will become slaves in a different, but a more ignominious, manner both to those who have the power of resisting pleasure, and to those who possess all the arts of pleasing, who are often the worst of men.'


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