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cure, or rather of protracting diseases, was not known before Herodicus introduced it.

P. 409. The temper and disposition of an old man of probity, fit to judge of the crimes of others, is described.

P. 410. The temper1 of men, practised in the exercises of the body, but unacquainted with musick and with letters, is apt to run into an obstinate and brutal fierceness; and that of the contrary sort, into indolence and effeminacy. The gradual neglect of this, in both cases, is here finely painted.

P. 412. Choice of such of the soldiery, as are to rise to the magistracy; namely, of those, who through their life, have been proof to pleasure and to pain.

P. 414. An example of a beneficial fiction. It is difficult to fix in the minds of men a belief in fables, originally; but it is very easy to deliver it down to posterity, when once established.

P. 416. The habitation of the soldiery : all luxury in building to be absolutely forbidden them : they are to have no patrimony, nor possessions, but to be supported and furnished with necessaries from year to year by the citizens; they are to live and eat in common, and to use no plate, nor jewels, nor money.

1 Vid. Platon. Politicum, p. 307 and 308.



P. 409. OUKOUV KOL Latplanv.] See the Gorgias, p. 587 and 588.

414. Φοινικικoν τι.] He alludes to the Theban fable of the earth-born race, which sprang from the dragon's teeth, and which, in an place, he calls Το του Σιδωνιου μυθολογημα, meaning Cadmus. See de Legibus, L. 2. p. 663.




P. 419. Objection : that the Pulakes (or soldiery), in whose hands the government is placed, will have less happiness and enjoyment of life than any of the meanest citizens. 1

Answer: that it is not the intention of the legislature to bestow superiour happiness on any one class of men in the state ; but that each shall enjoy such a measure of it, as is consistent with the preservation of the whole.

P. 421, Opulence and poverty are equally destructive of a state ;2 the one producing luxury, indolence, and 1 See De. Republ. L. 5. p. 466. and L. 7. p. 519.

2 See De Legib. L. 5. p. 729 and 743.


Ρ. 420. Ανδριαντας γραφοντας.] Ανδριας seems used here for a painting, and not for a statue.

Ib. Evotidas.] Evotis was a long variegated mantle, which swept the ground, worn by the principal characters in tragedy, and on great solemnities by the Greek women:

Βυσσοιο καλον συροισα χιτωνα,
Καμφιστειλαμενα ταν ξυστιδα ταν Κλεαριστας.

Theocrit. Id. 2. v. 73.


a spirit of innovation; the other producing meanness,

l cunning, and a like spirit of innovation.

The task of the magistracy is to keep both the one and the other out of the republick.

P. 422. Can such a state, without a superfluity of treasure, defend itself, when attacked by a rich and powerful neighbour ?

As easily as a champion, exercised for the olympick games, could defeat one or more rich fat men unused to fatigue, who should fall upon him in a hot day.

The advantage of such a state, which neither needs riches nor desires them, in forming alliances.

Every republick formed on another plan, though it bear the name of a state, is in reality several states included under one name; the rich making onel state, the poor another, and so on; always at war among themselves.

P. 423. A body of a thousand men bred to war, and united by such an education and government as this, is superiour even in number to any thing that almost any state in Greece could produce.

P. 424. No innovation is to be ever admitted in the original plan of education. A change of a musick in a country betokens a change in their morals.

1 See De Republ. L. 8. p. 551.

2 This was an opinion of the famous Damon. See De Legib. L. 2. p. 657. and L. 3. p. 700.



P. 420. Ootpelw.] The colour of the purple-fish used in painting, and not only in dying; so in Plato's Cratylus : Evlote μεν οστρεoν, ενιοτε δε ότιoύν αλλο φαρμακον επηνεγκαν.

427. Egryntns.] See Plato's Euthyphro.

P. 425. Fine satire on the Athenians, and on their demagogues.

P. 428. The political wisdom of the new-formed state is seated in the magistracy.

P. 429. Its bravery is seated in the soldiery: in what it consists.

P. 430. The nature of temperance: the expression 1 of subduing one's self, is explained; when reason, the

, superiour part of the mind, preserves its empire over the inferiour, that is, over our passions and desires. The temperance of the new republick, whose wisdom and valour (in the hands of the soldiery) exercise a just power over the inferiour people by their own consent, is described.

P. 433. Political justice distributes to every one his proper province of action, and prevents each from encroaching on the other.

P. 435. Justice in a private man: its similitude to the former is stated. The three distinct 2 faculties of

1 See De Legib. L. 1. p. 626. 2 De Republ. L. 9. p. 580.


P. 427. Tov Oupalov.] See Pausan. Phocic.

429. 'Aloupya.] Cloths dyed purple would bear washing with soap (μετα ρυμματων), without losing their bloom, το ανθος

430. Eτι καλλιον διϊμεν.] As he has done in the Laches.

433. Και ταυτη αρα ποιητου οικειου τε και εαυτού.] Perhaps we should read, του ποιειν το οικειον τε και το εαυτού, &c. i.e. ή OLKELOT Payla, as he afterwards calls it.

435. The Scythians, the Thracians, and other northern nations (8 kata Tov avw torov, and, as Virgil says, “Mundus ut ad Scy Riphæasque arduus arces Assurgit, &c.) were distinguished by their ferocity, the Greeks by their curiosity and

the soul, namely, appetite, or desire, reason, and indignation; or the concupiscible, the rational, and the irascible, are described.

P. 441. The first made to obey the second, and the third to assist and to strengthen it. Fortitude is the proper virtue of the irascible, wisdom of the rational, and temperance of the concupiscible, preserving a sort of harmony and consent between the three.

P. 443. Justice is the result of this union, maintaining each faculty in its proper office.

P. 444. The description of injustice.

P. 445. The uniformity of virtue, and the infinite variety of vice. Four more distinguished kinds of it are enumerated, whence arise four 2 different kinds of bad government. 1 V. Plat. Sophist. p. 223. 2 Vid. Plat. Politicum, p. 291.


love of knowledge, and the Phænicians and Egyptians by their desire of gain. (See de Legibus, L. 5. p. 747.) Plato marks the threefold distinction of men in these words ; Elow av pw WV τριττα γενη φιλοσοφον, φιλονεικος, φιλοκερδες. p. 581.

439. The story of Leontius the son of Aglaïon.

Ib. Anuelw.] The place in which the bodies of malefactors were exposed, so called.

Ib. To Bopelov.] See the Gorgias, p. 453.

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