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take up all his time, to acquire and exercise it, a distinct body will be formed of chosen men for the defence of the state.

P. 374. The nature of a soldier : he must have quickness of sense, agility, and strength, invincible spirit tempered with gentleness and goodness of heart, and an understanding apprehensive and desirous of knowledge. P. 376. The education of such a person.

Errors and dangerous prejudices are instilled into young minds by the Greek poets. The scandalous fables of Homer and of Hesiod, who attribute injustice, enmity, anger and deceit to the gods, are reprobated : and the immutable goodness, truth, justice, mercy, and other attributes of the Divinity are nobly asserted.

NOTES.

P. 372. 'Twv Tolıv.] So Crobylus (ap. Athenæum p. 54.) calls this kind of eatables, IIcOnkou Tpaynuara, the monkey's dessert.

373. Συβωται.] So he calls the oψοποιοι και μαγειροι, alluding to what Glauco had said before of the 'wv Tols : or perhaps, because the flesh of hogs was more generally eaten and esteemed than any other in Greece, he mentions them principally.

DE REPUBLICA.

BOOK III.

HEADS OF THE THIRD DIALOGUE.

a

P. 386. Wrong notions of a future state are instilled into youth by the poets, whence arises an unmanly fear of death.

P. 388. Excessive sorrow and excessive 1 laughter are equally unbecoming a man of worth.

P. 389. Falsehood and a fiction are not permitted, but where they are for the good of mankind; and con

1 V. Plato. de Legib. L. 5. p. 732.

2 Plato himself has given the example of such inventions in his Phædo, in his Phædrus, in the De Republ. L. 10: and in the Gorgias he follows the opinion of Timæus and of the Pythagoreans. Vid. de Animâ Mundi, p. 104. Vid. et de Legib. L. 2. p. 663. Νομοθετης δε ου τι και σμικρον οφελος, &c.

NOTES.

P. 378. Ov xolpov.] The usual sacrifice before the Eleusinian mysteries. See Aristoph. in Pace,

Ες χοιριδιον μοι νυν δανεισαν τρεις δραχμας,
Δει γαρ μυηθηναι με.

V. 373. 381. Περιερχονται νυκτωρ.] The heroes were supposed to walk in the night, (see Lucian de morte Peregrini, p. 579. Ed. Grævii.) and to strike with blindness, or with some other mischief, any who met them : they who passed by their fanes sequently they are not to be trusted but in skilful hands.

P. 390. Examples of impiety and of bad morality in the poets, and in other ancient writers.

P. 392. Poetick eloquence is divided into narration (in the writer's own person), and imitation in some assumed character). Dithyrambicks usually consist wholly of the former, dramatick poesy of the latter, the epick, &c. of both mixed.

P. 395. Early imitation becomes a second nature. The soldier is not permitted to imitate any thing misbecoming his own character, and consequently he is neither permitted to write, nor to play, any part which he himself would not act in life.

P. 396. Imitative expression in oratory, or in gesture, is restrained by the same principle.

Musick must be regulated. The Lydian, SyntonoLydian, and Ionian harmonies are banished, as accommodated to the soft enervate passions; but the Dorian and the Phrygian harmonies are permitted, as manly,

1 See also de Republ. L. 8. p. 568.

NOTES.

always kept a profound silence : see the Aves of Aristophan. v. 1485.

Ει γαρ εντυχοι τις ηρωϊ

Twv BpotWV VUKTWPKT), and the Schol. on the passage. P. 387. Autos autw avtapkns.] V. Cicer. de Amicitiâ, c. 2, who has imitated this passage.

389. TW di dnucoe pyou eaow.] Hom. Odys. P. v. 383.

393. Memelobal.] Tully says of himself : “Ipse mea legens, sic interdum afficior, ut Catonem, non me, loqui existimem." (De Amicit. c. 1.)

decent, and persuasive. All instruments of great compass and of luxuriant harmony, the lyra, the cythara, and the fistula, are allowed; and the various rhythms or movements are in like manner restrained.

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NOTES.

“Η μεν

P. 398. Μιξολυδιστι.] The Dorian harmony is thus described by Heraclides Ponticus ap. Athenæum, L. 14. p. 624. ουν Δωριος αρμονια το ανδρωδες εμφαινει και το μεγαλοπρεπες, και ου διακεχυμενον ουδ' ιλαρον, αλλα σκυθρωπον και σφοδρον, ουτε δε ποικιλον, ουτε πολυτροπον. The Syntono-Lydian and Ionian are mentioned by Pratinas ; (Athenæus ib.)

Μη συντονον διωκε, μητ' ανειμενην

Ιαστι ουσαν Athenæus ut sup. (Platon. Lachet. p. 188.) The Ionian was frequently used in the tragick chorus, as being accommodated to sorrow, as was also the Mixo-Lydian, invented by Sappho. See Burette on Plutarch de Musicâ, note 102. 103. Vol. 10. and 13. of the Mém. de l'Acad. des Belles-Lettres.

399. Τριγωνων.] The Τριγωνος was a triangular lyre of many strings, of Phrygian invention, used (as the IINKTIS) to accompany a chorus of voices. The latter is said to have been first used by Sappho :

Πολυς δε Φρυξ τριγωνος, αντισπαστα γε

Αυδης εφυμνει πηκτιδος συγχορδια. Sophocles in Mysis, ap. Athenæum, L. 14. p. 635, where perhaps we should read Avons for Avons ; for Pindar, cited in the

και same place, calls the IInktus a Lydian instrument, and Aristoxenus makes it the same as the Μαγαδις, which Anacreon tells us had twenty strings ; afterwards, according to Apollodorus, it was called Ψαλτηριον.

400. Tρια ειδη, εξ ών αι βασεις πλεκονται.] Τετταρα, όθεν αι πασαι αρμονιαι.

Ib. Εις Δαμωνα.] (V. Lachetem, p. 180.) These opinions of Plato on the efficacy of harmony and rhythm seem borrowed from Damon : Ου κακως λεγουσι οι περι Δαμωνα τον Αθηναιον, ότι τας ωδας και τας ορχησεις αναγκη γινεσθαι κινουμενης πως της ψυχης, και αι μεν ελευθεριοι και καλαι ποιoυσι τοιαυτας αι δ' εναν

Athenæus, L. 14. p. 628.

τιαι τας εναντιας.

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P. 401. The samel principle is extended to painting, sculpture, architecture, and to the other arts.

P. 403. Love is permitted, but abstracted from bodily enjoyment. Diet and exercises, plain and simple meats, are prescribed.

P. 405. Many judges and physicians are a sure sign of a society ill-regulated both in mind and in body. Ancient physicians knew no medicines but for wounds, fractures, epidemical distempers, and other acute complaints. The diætetick and gymnastick method of

. 1 Iνα μη εν κακιας εικοσι τρεφομενοι ημίν οι φυλακες, ώσπερ εν κακη βοτανη, πολλα έκαστης ημερας κατα σμικρον απο πολλων δρεπομενοι τε και νεμομενοι, έν τι ξυνισταντες λανθανωσι κακον μεγα εν τη αυτων ψυχη. Αλλ' εκεινους ζητητεον τους δημιουργους, τους ευφυως δυναμενους ιχνευειν την του καλου τε και ευσχημονος φυσιν ίν', ώσπερ εν υγιεινω τοπω οικουντες, οι νεοι ωφελωνται απο παντος, όπoθεν αν αυτοις απο των καλων εργων η προς οψιν η προς ακοην τι προσβαλη, ώσπερ αυρα φερουσα απο χρηστων τοπων υγιειαν, και ευθυς εκ παιδων λανθανη εις ομοιοτητα τε και φιλιαν και συμφωνιαν τω καλω λογω αγoυσα. Πολυ καλλιστα ούτω τραφεϊεν. De Republ. 3. p. 400.

NOTES.

Ρ. 404. Υπνωδης αυτη.] Euripides describes them as great eaters ; Γναθου τε δουλος νηδυος θ' ήσσημενος. Fragment. Autolyci (Dramatis Satyrici) ap. Athenæum, L. 10. p. 413, where Athenæus gives many instances of extreme voracity in the most famous athlete, and adds, παντες γαρ οι αθληται μετα των γυμνασματων και εσθιειν πολλα διδασκονται. Ib. Συρακουσια

ισιων τραπεζαν.] Vid. Plat. Epist. 7. p. 326. 327. and 336.

405. Φευγων και διωκων.] The image of the talents and turn of the Athenians at that time.

437. Πιλιδια.] Sick people went abroad in a cap, or little hat.

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